Scientific Paper Documents Feeding Behavior in Lionfish


Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects, recently co-authored a paper summarizing work documenting feeding patterns of lionfish in the Bahamas. Understanding the predation behavior of this invasive species is important to be able to predict and mitigate the effects of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) on Caribbean fish communities. Lad and his colleagues at Simon Frasier University studied the activity levels and prey consumption rates of lionfish on 12 shallow coral reefs in the Bahamas in relation to time of day and prey availability. Lionfish predation rates and activity levels were significantly higher during crepuscular (dawn and dusk) periods than at mid-day. Available prey fish biomass was highest at dawn but lower at mid-day and dusk, suggesting that lionfish predation activity is not limited by prey availability alone. The calculated average daily prey consumption rates was ~3 times the estimates obtained from studies of captive lionfish in their native range and of invasive lionfish observed only during the day. These results will help to predict more accurately the effect of predation by invasive lionfish on native reef fish communities. The study was published in the scientific journal Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 433. A summary of this and all other scientific publications that have included REEF data and programs are given on the Publications Resources page, at


Book Your Space on a REEF Trip Today


Are you ready to take a dive trip that counts? If you are looking to spend a week in a wonderful destination, learning and exploring with a group of fun and like-minded divers and snorkelers, then don't miss out on a REEF Trip. Now is the time to book your 2012 Field Survey with one of REEF's expert guides. Get in touch with our travel experts at Caradonna to find out more and to book your space - 1-877-295-7333 (REEF), or via e-mail Details are given below and more information can be found online at

April 21-28 - Nevis - Oualie Beach Resort. Led by Christy Semmens, REEF Director of Science.

May 26-June 2 (SOLD OUT) - Sun Dancer II, Belize - Lionfish Control Study, led by Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects and Peter Hughes.

June 9-16 (SOLD OUT) and June 16-23 (2 SPACES LEFT) - San Blas Islands, Panama - Coral Lodge, led by Paul Humann, REEF Co-Founder and Renowned Underwater Photographer and Author.

July 14-21 - Lionfish workshop in Dominica - Dive Dominica and Anchorage Hotel, led by Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects.

July 28 - August 4 - San Salvador, Bahamas - Riding Rock Inn and Marina, led by Paul Humann, REEF Co-Founder and Renowned Underwater Photographer and Author.

September 22-29 (6 SPACES LEFT)- Sea of Cortez, Baja Mexico - Rocio del Mar liveaboard, led by Drs. Christy and Brice Semmens, REEF Director of Science, REEF Researcher.

September 26-30 (SOLD OUT) - Hornby Island, British Columbia - Hornby Island Diving, led by Janna Nichols, REEF Outreach Coordinator.

October 6-13 - Bermuda - Triangle Diving and Grotto Bay Hotel, led by Ned and Anna DeLoach, REEF Board Members and World-Famous Marine Life Authors and Photographer/Videographers.

November 10-17, British Virgin Islands - Cuan Law liveaboard, led by Heather George, REEF Expert.

December 1-8 (SOLD OUT), Cozumel - Aqua Safari, led by Tracey Griffin, REEF Expert.

The Faces of REEF: Member Spotlight, Rick Long

A golden Pacific Gray Chub, or “Queen Nenue”. Photo by Rick Long.

REEF members are at the heart of our grassroots marine conservation programs. Over 43,000 divers, snorkelers, students, and armchair naturalists stand behind our mission.

This month we highlight Rick Long. Rick joined REEF in 1997 and has conducted 469 surveys, making him one of Hawaii's top surveyors. Mike is a member of the Hawaii REEF Advanced Assessment Team and he lives on Maui. Here's what he had to say about REEF:

How did you first get involved with REEF?

I did my first REEF survey while diving in the Florida Keys and went inactive until I moved to Maui and joined the fish count at the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. I learned the Hawaiian reef fish by participating in the monthly activities of a local REEF group called Fish Identification Network (FIN) and by volunteering at the Maui Ocean Center aquarium. I learned even more about fish behavior and corals by volunteering with the Herbivore project at Kahekili Beach, doing Reef Check surveys, and with Eyes of the Reef monitoring for coral bleaching and disease. Volunteering in all of these venues, I have learned not only the common names, but also some of the scientific and Hawaiian names of fish and other marine life. I am an enthusiastic advocate for Citizen Science.

In addition to surveying, what other ways are you involved with REEF?

Through the years, I have participated in monthly REEF survey shore dives organized by FIN and other groups. I have also taught Coral Reef slide shows at the NOAA whale sanctuary in Kihei that includes tips for visitors wanting to get in the ocean to see the beautiful fish and coral reefs in our state.

What is your favorite dive spot and favorite fish?

My friends are just as enthusiastic as I am, and can paddle outrigger canoes, scuba dive, or snorkel almost every day of the week in Maui. My favorite coral reef to survey is Maonakala, located within the marine protected area of the ʻĀhihi-Kīnaʻu Natural Area Reserve, and is one of the few coral reefs not in decline. One of my all time favorite fish is a special little chub or rudderfish that lives on this reef. The Hawaiians had a name for the Pacific Gray Chub (Kyphosus sandwicensis) in a yellow morph coloration and they called it the “Queen Nenue” (nay-new-ay).

Upcoming Fishinars - Cleaning Stations with Ned and Anna DeLoach, Sharkinar with Marty Snyderman and Andy Dehart, NE Fishes, and More!

A grouper getting cleaned! Photo by Ned DeLoach.

New Fishinars continue to be added, and upcoming sessions include special sessions all about cleaning stations with Ned and Anna DeLoach, a Sharkinar with Andy Dehart and Marty Snyderman, and Northeast Fishes, plus several new Caribbean fish topics including fish you will see on your safety stop and those you will find in the biodiversity hotspot of Bonaire! Check out the Webinar Training page ( for the most up-to-date listing. These popular online training sessions provide fishie fun in the comfort of your own home. Fishinars are free, and open to all REEF members. You need to register for each session you want to attend. No special software is required, just a web browser. Upcoming sessions include:

Cleanliness is Next to Fishiness: All About Cleaning Stations with Ned and Anna DeLoach - May 15

Special Session: Scubaboard's Bonaire's Top 25 with Jonathan Lavan  - May 21

Sharkinar! with Marty Snyderman and Andy Dehart - May 28

Diving the Northeast: Fish You Should Know - June 13

Safety Stop Survey: the Top 12 Caribbean Fish You May See at 15 Feet in 3 Minutes - July 11

Check out the Fishinar page for more details and to register for each session.

Outstanding in their Field: Featured REEF Field Station, Bandito Dive Charters

Bandito Charters dive boat, the Sampan.
Jackie DeHaven, owner of Bandito Charters, showing her REEF pride!
Jackie is a REEF level 5 surveyor. Photo by Dave Hicks.

REEF is proud to partner with over 130 dive shops, dive clubs, individuals, and other organizations as REEF Field Stations.

This month for our Field Station spotlight, we're heading up to the cold waters of Puget Sound - Tacoma, Washington to be exact. Here we'll find Bandito Dive Charters, whose boat, the Sampan, hosts about a 1,000 divers each year on sites in Puget Sound and the San Juan Islands. Bandito Dive Charters, owned by Captains Rick Myers and Jackie DeHaven, is lucky enough to have the critter ID talents of Jackie on board. Jackie is a REEF level 5 Expert surveyor for the Pacific coast region. She first got involved with REEF by taking a fish ID class from REEF Outreach Coordinator, Janna Nichols, over 9 years ago, and has done hundreds of surveys in the area. The dive charter has been a REEF Field Station almost 5 years now.

Jackie says, " Developing our flagship boat, Sampan as a REEF Field Station seemed a perfect fit to offer our customers REEF classes, materials, and the opportunity to talk about the diverse creatures found in our Pacific Northwest waters with a fellow diver (me, level 5 surveyor) who could assist with creature identification. We host several underwater photographers and the REEF field station status allows us to provide support for creature ID when the photographers are asking “What will I see?” at various sites."

Jackie continues, " We provide multiple copies of fish ID books focused on Pacific Northwest fish, invertebrates and nudibranchs. We provide slates, waterproof paper, and guided fish ID dives if requested and arranged in advance. We can teach REEF fish ID classes at our marina facilities prior to scheduled dive trips and/or on the boat en-route to dive sites." Bandito Charters would like to offer more intro-level REEF fish ID classes combined with two boat dives for the initial surveys.

Jackie's favorite fish – only because it's so rare for a diver to see – is the sixgill shark. She has been surveying Puget Sound waters since 2003 and has only seen them once or twice. In fact, in recent years, very few have been spotted at all in south Puget Sound. Jackie says, "Sixgill sharks are such large creatures who can move silently through your field of vision, almost elusive, yet they show such tremendous power, grace, and presence." 

When we asked Jackie what things she liked best about REEF, she enthusiastically replied, "It is so EASY!!!! Submitting data online is quick, the Website is incredibly easy to navigate, and I feel that REEF surveys are offering a valuable tool for assessing the health of our waters and local species."

Welcome to the Golden Hamlet Club - Patricia Richardson

Patricia Richardson of Hawaii recently submitted her 1000th REEF survey! Pat joins 16 other REEF members in the Golden Hamlet Club. Pat has done most of her surveys at one location, Richardson Ocean Park in Hilo, which has given her a very unique perspective on how the populations change throughout the year and over time. When asked about her recent achievement and what she thinks about REEF, Pat had this to say-- "REEF has provided me with a purpose for my retirement years that is filled with constant beauty and new things to see and learn. I am very grateful to REEF for giving a focus to my passion. Imagine doing something so beatiful and satisfying - and getting to call myself a citizen scientist as a big bonus!"

You can read more about Pat in this past Faces of REEF Member Spotlight. Congratulations Pat, and thank you for your dedication to REEF's mission!

Upcoming Fishinars - Sand Dwellers, Life on Oil Platforms, Sharkinar, and more!

Don't miss the Sharkinar on October 22nd. Sand Tiger Shark photo by Jeffrey Haines.

We've got lots of exciting, fun, and educational REEF Fishinars in store for you this fall - featuring your favorite instructors and special guests. Check out the full schedule at REEF Fishinars are a free benefit of REEF membership, and did you know that REEF members can also access and view any of our archived Fishinars from previous years? Fishinars coming up include:

  • Playing in the Sandbox: Top 12 Sand Dwellers of the Caribbean - Jonathan Lavan, October 7th
  • Sharkinar! - Dr. Dean Grubbs, Florida State University, October 22nd
  • That Face, That Face, That Wonderful Face! Top 12 Blennies of the Caribbean - Jonathan Lavan, November 4th
  • What I Did on My Fall Vacation - Research on the Fishes of Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms - Dr. Milton Love, UC Santa Barbara, November 10th
  • Lionfish Myth Busters, Liz Underwood, December 3rd

Explore our Fishinar webpage, register for the sessions you like, and we'll see you online! No special software or is required - just a computer with speakers and an internet connection. And did we mention they are FREE to REEF members!

Fishinars in 2015 - Check Out the Full Schedule!

You asked for it! A "Turtlinar" is scheduled forJune 18. Hawksbill Turtle photo by Paddy Ryan.

We now have a full schedule of Fishinars planned for 2015. Topics ranging from fishes of Laguna Beach, common invertebrates of New England, Puffers and Porcupines of the Caribbean, and thanks to many requests, we even have a "Turtlinar" for you! If you haven't participated in one of our free, educational webinars yet, you don't know what you are missing! Known as Fishinars, these hour-long sessions enable you to learn and have fun from the comfort of your living room. Check out the full schedule and links to register at Planned Fishinars for 2015 include:

  • May 18, 20, Common Fishes of Catalina Island, Parts 1 and 2, Taught by Janna Nicols
  • May 21, Snap on! Snap off! The Snapper, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • June 9, Dude, Let's Go Diving - Fishes of Laguna Beach Shore Dives, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • June 18, "Turtlinar" - Sea turtles around the world: are they in trouble?, Taught by Dr. Selina Heppell
  • June 24, Lesser Seen Fishes of Turks and Caicos, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • July 8, Rock On! California Rockfishes and Scorpionfish, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • July 14, Invertebrates of New England, Taught by Janna Nichols
  • July 16, Fishes of New England, Taught by Janna Nichols
  • July 21, Puffers and Porcupines of the Caribbean, Taught by Carlos and Allison
  • July 23, Pacific Coast Young of the Year (YOY) Rockfish ID, Taught by Janna Nichols
  • July 28, Fishes of Bonaire Shore Diving, Taught by Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens
  • September 1, Those Darn Damsels - Reboot, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • Sept 8, 10, 14, 16, Invertebrates and Algae of REEF's California Survey Project, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • September 30, Night Stalkers - Eels of the Caribbean, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • October 20, Islands in the Stream - Fishes of the California Channel Islands, Taught by Jonathan Lavan
  • November 16, The Ones You Should Know - Top 25 Fishes of the Caribbean, Taught by Jonathan Lavan

Putting It To Work: New Publication on Role of Mangroves for Fish Populations

Image courtesy Phil1stPix on Flickr.

Mangroves provide important nursery habitat for coral reef fishes, such as grunts, snappers, and others. While this has been shown locally in some studies, a new paper by scientists from NOAA Fisheries and University of Miami RSMAS used REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project data to evaluate mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale. Their findings, recently published in the scientific journal PLoS ONE, showed that the size of nearby mangrove forests directly influences reef fish densities of at least 6 species.This study is a great example of the power and impact that long-term, wide-spread citizen science programs such as the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project can have on addressing important ecological and management questions that would otherwise be near impossible to evaluate. Way to go REEF surveyors! Visit to see this and all of the 50+ scientific publications that have included REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project data.

Announcing 2017 REEF Trips Schedule

Join us for our inaugural trip to the Galapagos in 2017.
Also new in 2017 - an Alaska Wilderness Adventure trip.
The underwater world of Dominica awaits. Photo by Ari Perryman.
Learn about the invasive Lionfish in Curacao and The Bahamas.
The schedule includes several liveaboard options, as well as land-based trips.

We are excited to share our 2017 REEF Trips Schedule, with a fantastic lineup of destinations planned. These Field Survey Trips offer a great introduction to fish identification for novice surveyors, and are a fun way for experienced surveyors to build their life list while interacting with fellow marine life enthusiasts. We also offer several Lionfish Research Trips each year. REEF staff, board members, and other REEF experts lead these trips, and each trip features daily educational seminars and a full diving schedule. To find out more or to book your space, contact us at or call 305-588-5869. Visit for full package details. Trips fill up fast so don't delay. And be sure to check out the remaining 2016 trips that still have space, including: Lionfish trips to Honduras and Curacao, Bermuda, Palau & Yap, Barkley Sound BC, Saba, Coronado Island CA, Belize, and Cozumel.

2017 REEF Field Survey Schedule

February 18 - 25 -- Dominica -- Dive Dominica & Castle Comfort Lodge, Led by Lad Akins

April 4 - 14 -- Solomon Islands -- M/V Bilikiki, Led by Christy Pattengill-Semmens

April 22 - 29 -- Turks and Caicos Islands -- Dive Provo and Port of Call Resort, Led by Jonathan Lavan

May 14 - 21 -- Galapagos Islands -- M/V Galapagos Sky Liveaboard, Led by Christy Pattengill-Semmens

June 10 - 16 -- Alaska Wilderness Expedition - Port Fidalgo Inlet, Alaska -- Ravencroft Lodge, Led by Andy Dehart

June 24 - July 1 -- Bahamas -- Lionfish Research Trip Explorer II Liveaboard, Led by Lad Akins and Peter Hughes

June 24 - July 1 -- Roatan -- CoCo View Resort, Led by Janna Nichols and Scott & Patti Chandler

August 19 - 26 -- Curacao -- Lionfish Research and Fish ID Trip Combo GO WEST Diving and Kura Hulanda Lodge, Led by Lad Akins, Peter Hughes, and Ellie Splain

August 19 - 26 -- Sea of Cortez -- Rocio del Mar Liveaboard, Led by Christy and Brice Semmens, SOLD OUT

September 2 - 9 -- Bequia -- Bequia Dive Adventures and Village Apartments, Led by Paul Humann

October 1 - 8 -- Grand Cayman -- Sunset House, Led by Paul Humann

October 14 - 25 -- Indonesia Lembeh Strait -- Eco Divers, Led by Ned and Anna DeLoach, SOLD OUT

October 15 - 19 -- Hornby Island British Columbia -- Hornby Island Diving, Led by Janna Nichols

November 4 - 11 -- Bonaire -- Captain Don's Habitat, Led by Amy Lee and Janna Nichols

December 2 - 9 -- Cozumel -- Chili Charters and Casa Mexicana/Safari Inn, Led by Tracey Griffin

December 3 - 9 -- British Virgin Islands -- Cuan Law Liveaboard, Led by Ellie Splain

Design by Joanne Kidd, development by Ben Weintraub