As part of REEF's ongoing efforts to engage new divers and snorkelers into the Volunteer Survey Project, as well as to provide existing REEF volunteers with continued training and survey opportunities, we coordinated a REEF Workshop in Southern California last month. The free identification classes, which were taught by REEF Instructor Janna Nichols, were very well attended and the workshop series was a success. Almost 100 divers turned out to take the REEF California Fish and Invertebrate Identification classes and about a dozen divers joined in the survey event at Malaga Cove. It was a great opportunity to reinvigorate REEF's programs in Southern California and to mobilize a corps of dedicated surveyors who will begin conducting surveys on their regular recreational dives.
Funding support for the workshop series was provided by a foundation grant. REEF is dedicated to continuing these opportunities and we are planning to return to LA/OC area next Spring, as well as plan similar events in San Diego and Central California. A huge thanks to Deb Karimoto of Orange County diving, Eric Frasco of Dive 'n' Surf dive shop and Heather George for logistical help, and to REI Manhattan Beach and Newport Beach Tennis Club for letting us hold the classes at their facilities.
As all of you Caribbean fiswatchers know, hamlets are a group of colourful coral reef fish found throughout the Caribbean. Ten species of hamlet have been discovered and each can be easily recognized by its own distinct colour pattern. In some areas, as many as seven varieties can be found on a single reef. However, most hamlet species are only found at specific locations. The blue hamlet, for example, is found only in the Florida region. How these very different looking, yet very closely related species came to be has been a a subject of debate among scientists. Data collected by divers and snorkelers as part of the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project were recently used in a large analysis to better understand the patterns of evolution in these and other marine fishes. Dr. Ben Holt from University of East Anglia (UK) and his colleagues Simon Fraser University in Canada recently published their findings in the scientific journal Global Ecology and Biogeography.
It had previously been believed that these different species of hamlets evolved because of geographical separation. For example, it was thought that falling sea levels in the past could have divided the original species. Then, when levels increased, the differently evolved species were thrown back together. The new study found little evidence for this theory and instead suggests that hamlet color varieties could have evolved regardless of any physical separation. Using thousands of underwater surveys made by REEF volunteers, the researchers analysed distributions of the ten different hamlet species. They found that even widespread hamlet species are not found everywhere, and identified high density hotspots for each species. Because different species hotspots overlap and many species have more than one hotspot, the results do not support the theory that hamlets originated independently when they were geographically separated in the past. The research also showed how ecological factors, such as competition for food or habitat, may influence how different hamlet species co-exist.
"Our findings suggest that ecology may better explain the evolution of hamlets than geographical separation," said lead author Dr Ben Holt of UEA's School of Biological Sciences. "Many scientists believe hamlets are beginning to evolve into a new species and this latest discovery will shed light on this process." The full citation of the paper is Holt, B., I Cote, and B Emerson (2010). Signatures of speciation? Distribution and diversity of Hypoplectrus (Teleostei: Serranidae) colour morphotypes. Global Ecology and Biogeography (published online 23 April 2010).
To see this and other scientific papers that have been published using REEF data, check out the Publications page on the REEF.org website here.
Attention Tropical Western Atlantic fishwatchers -- the Neon Goby has been split into two species. The original Neon Goby, Elactinus oceanops, retains the common name and is geographically known only from So. Florida and Flower Gardens and Alacran reefs in the Gulf of Mexico. This goby can be distinguished by the bright neon blue stripe from snout to tail with a sharp blue-against-black edge.
The Caribbean Neon Goby (new common name), Elactinus lobeli, is known only from the Bay of Honduras, from Xcalak in Yucatan through Belize to the Bay Islands of Honduras, including offshore reefs. It can be distinguished by the pale blue or grey borders along the bright blue neon stripe running from snout to tail. Genetic analyses indicate that the two species have been separated for about 800,000 years.
REEF recently awarded Nancy Perez the 2010 Key Largo Community Volunteer Award. Nancy joined during REEF's inaugural year in 1993! She lives in the Florida Keys and has become an instrumental volunteer at REEF Headquarters in Key Largo. Nancy helps connect REEF with the local community through planning special events, including holiday parties, the James E. Lockwood REEF Headquarters dedication, and participation at local festivals. Nancy has also encouraged other locals to volunteer at REEF HQ and is always available to assist REEF staff on projects. Nancy's biggest impact has been through her role coordinating the Fish and Friends gatherings at REEF HQ. During these popular monthly meetings, which started in 2009, REEF supporters come together to socialize with fellow fish followers and listen to presentations about various marine species and habitats. The success of this event would not be possible without the hard work and time that Nancy puts in to finding speakers, getting volunteer hosts, coordinating the snacks and beverages, and always wearing a smile. Her tireless dedication to the REEF Fish and Friends event is admired by all. In her spare time, Nancy is out diving and completing REEF surveys! On behalf of the REEF Staff and Board of Trustees, we extend Nancy our deepest appreciation.
REEF members are at the heart of our grassroots marine conservation programs. Over 43,000 divers, snorkelers, students, and armchair naturalists stand behind our mission.
This month we highlight Dave Grenda (REEF member since 1998). After retiring from the military, he became a volunteer, divemaster, and an American Academy Of Underwater Sciences Scientific Diver at the Florida Aquarium in Tampa. Dave has conducted over 1,800 REEF surveys and is a Level 5 Expert surveyor. In addition to his own diving activities, Dave has participated in numerous research projects, including numerous REEF Advanced Assessment Team trips, Nassau grouper tagging in the Caymans, mutton snapper spawning in the Dry Tortugas, piscivore cooperative hunting research off Georgia (see "Putting it to Work"), queen conch population surveys in St. Croix, Aquarius undersea laboratory support in Key Largo, Tampa Bay Civil War shipwreck archeology, Paleolithic Indian archeology in North Port Florida, coral spawning in the Flower Gardens and Key Largo, Gulf Red Tide recovery, reef health assessments with the Living Oceans Foundation in the Caribbean, point/transect fish surveys throughout the Keys, and collecting exhibit animals for aquaria educational displays. Here's what Dave had to say about REEF:
When and how did you first hear about REEF? What is your favorite part about being a REEF member? I became involved with REEF after attending a fish ID lecture at the Florida Aquarium given by John Pitcarin - a founding REEF staff member. Being a REEF member has opened an entirely new world to me. The fish identification skills I've acquired through REEF has opened many doors for me as a citizen scientist. I'm extremely grateful for the many opportunities I've been provided through my association with REEF. Attaining Expert survey level has enabled me to join numerous research efforts with NOAA, National Park Service, Universities, Aquaria, and of course REEF itself. Working with marine scientists has been very interesting and those scientists have relied extensively on my fish identification skills that I've acquired during my REEF survey diving. While these scientists knew their particular specialty very well, they were often rusty in general fish identification. I quickly became a valued member of their team, treated as an equal colleague, and sought after for future projects.
In your opinion, what is the most important aspect of REEFís projects and programs? Doing REEF surveys not only provides valuable data, it's a great way of "giving back" (helping the aquatic environment), but it also greatly enhances your diving enjoyment. What I like about the REEF survey method is that it can adapt to any type of dive site - regardless of visibility, current, depth, etc. While other divers might be disappointed at the visibility, or the failure to see certain animals (like sharks, turtles, eels, etc.), I will have had a great dive doing a REEF survey. I see more during my dives by doing surveys and I get excited at a rare sighting and adding a new species to my lifelist.
Do you have any surveying, fishwatching, or identification tips for REEF members? What new fish ID'ers need to do is SLOW down. It's much easier to see the movement of a cryptic fish, or just about any fish, when you aren't moving. If conditions allow, I'll start my dive by hovering in the water column. I'll write down every species I see as I slowly make a complete turn - looking in the water column as well as on the bottom below. To get the most species from each dive site, I'll try to hit as many different environments as possible (sand, rubble, top/middle/bottom of the reef, shallow/deep, etc.). Bring a flashlight to look into crevices and every tube sponge. It also helps to use the REEF database to know what species have been previously sighted at your dive destination. Before the dive you can acquaint yourself with the descriptions of new fish you might see there, so if you do come across that new fish, you'll already know how to identify it. Chance favors the prepared mind. You should also jump at the chance to dive with other fish watching experts. I've learned so much and so quickly by diving with other REEF folks - gaining confidence, learning new techniques, and just sharing wonderful fish stories.
REEF Field Surveys trips that are a great introduction to fish identification for novice fishwatchers, and a fun way for experienced surveyors to build their life list while interacting with fellow fishwatchers. REEF coordinates Field Surveys to locations throughout our project regions each year. These projects are led by REEF staff and other REEF instructors and feature daily classroom seminars and a full diving schedule. Many of the 2012 REEF Field Survey trips are sold out, but there are still a few spots on the lionfish research expedition to Dominica, the fish behavior trip to Bermuda, and a liveaboard through the British Virgin Islands. We are also working on an exciting lineup for the 2013 schedule. We will announce the full lineup and details soon. Destinations include Fiji, Curacao, Turks and Caicos, Utila, and the Soccoro Islands. Get in touch with our travel experts at Caradonna to find out more and to book your space - 1-877-295-7333 (REEF), or via e-mail REEF@caradonna.com. The full schedule and more information can be found online at http://www.REEF.org/trips.
REEF members are at the heart of our grassroots marine conservation programs. Over 43,000 divers, snorkelers, students, and armchair naturalists stand behind our mission.
This month we highlight Rick Long. Rick joined REEF in 1997 and has conducted 469 surveys, making him one of Hawaii's top surveyors. Mike is a member of the Hawaii REEF Advanced Assessment Team and he lives on Maui. Here's what he had to say about REEF:
How did you first get involved with REEF?
I did my first REEF survey while diving in the Florida Keys and went inactive until I moved to Maui and joined the fish count at the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. I learned the Hawaiian reef fish by participating in the monthly activities of a local REEF group called Fish Identification Network (FIN) and by volunteering at the Maui Ocean Center aquarium. I learned even more about fish behavior and corals by volunteering with the Herbivore project at Kahekili Beach, doing Reef Check surveys, and with Eyes of the Reef monitoring for coral bleaching and disease. Volunteering in all of these venues, I have learned not only the common names, but also some of the scientific and Hawaiian names of fish and other marine life. I am an enthusiastic advocate for Citizen Science.
In addition to surveying, what other ways are you involved with REEF?
Through the years, I have participated in monthly REEF survey shore dives organized by FIN and other groups. I have also taught Coral Reef slide shows at the NOAA whale sanctuary in Kihei that includes tips for visitors wanting to get in the ocean to see the beautiful fish and coral reefs in our state.
What is your favorite dive spot and favorite fish?
My friends are just as enthusiastic as I am, and can paddle outrigger canoes, scuba dive, or snorkel almost every day of the week in Maui. My favorite coral reef to survey is Maonakala, located within the marine protected area of the ʻĀhihi-Kīnaʻu Natural Area Reserve, and is one of the few coral reefs not in decline. One of my all time favorite fish is a special little chub or rudderfish that lives on this reef. The Hawaiians had a name for the Pacific Gray Chub (Kyphosus sandwicensis) in a yellow morph coloration and they called it the “Queen Nenue” (nay-new-ay).
New Fishinars continue to be added, and upcoming sessions include special sessions all about cleaning stations with Ned and Anna DeLoach, a Sharkinar with Andy Dehart and Marty Snyderman, and Northeast Fishes, plus several new Caribbean fish topics including fish you will see on your safety stop and those you will find in the biodiversity hotspot of Bonaire! Check out the Webinar Training page (www.REEF.org/resources/webinars) for the most up-to-date listing. These popular online training sessions provide fishie fun in the comfort of your own home. Fishinars are free, and open to all REEF members. You need to register for each session you want to attend. No special software is required, just a web browser. Upcoming sessions include:
Cleanliness is Next to Fishiness: All About Cleaning Stations with Ned and Anna DeLoach - May 15
Special Session: Scubaboard's Bonaire's Top 25 with Jonathan Lavan - May 21
Sharkinar! with Marty Snyderman and Andy Dehart - May 28
Diving the Northeast: Fish You Should Know - June 13
Safety Stop Survey: the Top 12 Caribbean Fish You May See at 15 Feet in 3 Minutes - July 11
Check out the Fishinar page for more details and to register for each session.
REEF is proud to partner with over 130 dive shops, dive clubs, individuals, and other organizations as REEF Field Stations.
This month for our Field Station spotlight, we're heading up to the cold waters of Puget Sound - Tacoma, Washington to be exact. Here we'll find Bandito Dive Charters, whose boat, the Sampan, hosts about a 1,000 divers each year on sites in Puget Sound and the San Juan Islands. Bandito Dive Charters, owned by Captains Rick Myers and Jackie DeHaven, is lucky enough to have the critter ID talents of Jackie on board. Jackie is a REEF level 5 Expert surveyor for the Pacific coast region. She first got involved with REEF by taking a fish ID class from REEF Outreach Coordinator, Janna Nichols, over 9 years ago, and has done hundreds of surveys in the area. The dive charter has been a REEF Field Station almost 5 years now.
Jackie says, " Developing our flagship boat, Sampan as a REEF Field Station seemed a perfect fit to offer our customers REEF classes, materials, and the opportunity to talk about the diverse creatures found in our Pacific Northwest waters with a fellow diver (me, level 5 surveyor) who could assist with creature identification. We host several underwater photographers and the REEF field station status allows us to provide support for creature ID when the photographers are asking “What will I see?” at various sites."
Jackie continues, " We provide multiple copies of fish ID books focused on Pacific Northwest fish, invertebrates and nudibranchs. We provide slates, waterproof paper, and guided fish ID dives if requested and arranged in advance. We can teach REEF fish ID classes at our marina facilities prior to scheduled dive trips and/or on the boat en-route to dive sites." Bandito Charters would like to offer more intro-level REEF fish ID classes combined with two boat dives for the initial surveys.
Jackie's favorite fish – only because it's so rare for a diver to see – is the sixgill shark. She has been surveying Puget Sound waters since 2003 and has only seen them once or twice. In fact, in recent years, very few have been spotted at all in south Puget Sound. Jackie says, "Sixgill sharks are such large creatures who can move silently through your field of vision, almost elusive, yet they show such tremendous power, grace, and presence."
When we asked Jackie what things she liked best about REEF, she enthusiastically replied, "It is so EASY!!!! Submitting data online is quick, the Website is incredibly easy to navigate, and I feel that REEF surveys are offering a valuable tool for assessing the health of our waters and local species."
Patricia Richardson of Hawaii recently submitted her 1000th REEF survey! Pat joins 16 other REEF members in the Golden Hamlet Club. Pat has done most of her surveys at one location, Richardson Ocean Park in Hilo, which has given her a very unique perspective on how the populations change throughout the year and over time. When asked about her recent achievement and what she thinks about REEF, Pat had this to say-- "REEF has provided me with a purpose for my retirement years that is filled with constant beauty and new things to see and learn. I am very grateful to REEF for giving a focus to my passion. Imagine doing something so beatiful and satisfying - and getting to call myself a citizen scientist as a big bonus!"
You can read more about Pat in this past Faces of REEF Member Spotlight. Congratulations Pat, and thank you for your dedication to REEF's mission!