Those pesky Caribbean damselfish! They have been confusing even the most experienced REEF surveyors for years! After consulting with the leading damselfish taxonomist experts, Paul Humann and Ned DeLoach revised the descriptions and updated pictures for four species - Cocoa Damselfish (Stegastes variabilis), Beaugregory (Stegastes leucostictus), Longfin Damselfish (Stegastes diencaeus), and Dusky Damselfish (Stegastes adustus). One of the most noticeable changes from what many of us learned - Cocoa Damselfish don't always have a spot at the base of the tale and Beaugregory often have a spot!
The revised pages, meant to replace pages 124-129 in the 3rd edition of Reef Fish Identification, are available for download as PDFs below, courtesy of New World Publications. The text and pictures were reviewed by Dr. Ross Robertson with the Smithsonian's Tropical Research Institute in Panama, who is considered the world's authority on Western Tropical Atlantic damselfishes, and Dr. Mark Steele at University of California, Santa Barbara, another damselfish taxonomist.
Long-time REEF Advanced Assessment Team member, Neil Ericsson, has also compiled the key features into a handy matrix. The matrix is available as a PDF here. All of these resources are also linked from the Damselfish Revised page on the REEF website -- www.REEF.org/damselfish.
Revised Damselfish Descriptions and Pictures (PDFs)
After years of work, the Tropical Pacific edition of Reef Creature Identification by Paul Humann and Ned DeLoach is being released later this fall. A limited number of pre-release, signed and numbered copies will be available beginning Monday September 13. The authors have donated to REEF the first five pre-release copies of this spectacular book. REEF will be auctioning copies #1-#5 through eBay. The copies will be numbered, signed, and personalized to the winner's specifications. All proceeds from this auction will go directly to REEF, and will support our critical marine conservation programs. The auction goes live Sunday September 12 at 9pm EST. Once live, you can find the auction pages for all five copies here. The auction will last 10 days.
The long-awaited, 500-page reference detailing 1,600 animals with 2,000 photographs and descriptive text is not only the most comprehensive visual field guide to marine invertebrate life inhabiting the waters from Thailand to Tahiti, but also a pictorial tour de force skillfully bridging science and the aesthetic. For the past five years the two authors/photographers have delved deep into uncharted waters, not only visually documenting numerous species for the first time, but also incorporating the most recent taxonomic research of more than 40 scientific specialists. The text focuses on mobile species, highlighting crustaceans, mollusks, worms and echinoderms, however the pages include an overview of attached marine animals, and also explore facets of marine invertebrate behavior. The guide provides a boon of information for diving photographers and underwater naturalists, known as critter hunters, who enjoy one of the most challenging games in the sea – searching for charismatic mini-fauna of the reef. And for the armchair adventurers, the brilliant gallery of images brings an unseen, unimagined world to the surface like never before.
Visit the book webpage to find out more about Reef Creature Identification - Tropical Pacific and to see sample spreads from the book.
REEF is proud to partner with over 130 dive shops, dive clubs, individuals, and other organizations as REEF Field Stations.
This month we feature Reef Divers of the Little Cayman Beach Resort in the Caribbean, which has been a Field Station since 2004. They offer beginner and advanced fish ID classes, the shop carries REEF Survey Starter Kits and ID books, and they have a very knowledgeable dive staff who love helping with those hard-to-identify species. Reef Divers staff have seen first hand that conducting REEF surveys makes their customer’s dives that much more fun and enjoyable, and they have many repeat customers who are surveyors. The dive shop and resort have also been generous supporters of the Grouper Moon Project field logistics through the years.
Reef Divers is one of four dive operations on Little Cayman. The island is home to what is likely the most famous wall dive in the world, Bloody Bay, where the wall starts as shallow as 18 feet and has everything from sand flats to coral pinnacles to sheer vertical walls. This mixture allows divers to see plentiful fish life. Fishwatchers fill up their survey slate quickly, and it’s a perfect place to try for a “Century Dive” (100 species on one dive). Long-time Reef Divers instructor and active REEF leader, Dottie Benjamin, says she had the pleasure of meeting Ned and Anna DeLoach while working on the WaveDancer in Belize and was on board during a REEF Field Survey trip. Dottie says she “learned lots of great information that week and my interest in fish was born.”
When asked what the most interesting fish that their divers had ever recorded, Dottie provided this story – “Last year on a moonless night dive, a few of our divers came up with a tall fish tale of a very strange fish they spotted while doing their safety stop on the hang chain. Luckily, they got some good photos of it and we were able to identify it with some help from REEF science staff as a Tripod Fish (Bathypterois grallator) juvenile. The adults are only found on the ocean floor at depths of 3,000 to 15,000 feet. A very cool find!
Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects, recently co-authored a paper summarizing work documenting feeding patterns of lionfish in the Bahamas. Understanding the predation behavior of this invasive species is important to be able to predict and mitigate the effects of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) on Caribbean fish communities. Lad and his colleagues at Simon Frasier University studied the activity levels and prey consumption rates of lionfish on 12 shallow coral reefs in the Bahamas in relation to time of day and prey availability. Lionfish predation rates and activity levels were significantly higher during crepuscular (dawn and dusk) periods than at mid-day. Available prey fish biomass was highest at dawn but lower at mid-day and dusk, suggesting that lionfish predation activity is not limited by prey availability alone. The calculated average daily prey consumption rates was ~3 times the estimates obtained from studies of captive lionfish in their native range and of invasive lionfish observed only during the day. These results will help to predict more accurately the effect of predation by invasive lionfish on native reef fish communities. The study was published in the scientific journal Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 433. A summary of this and all other scientific publications that have included REEF data and programs are given on the Publications Resources page, at http://www.reef.org/db/publications.
Are you ready to take a dive trip that counts? If you are looking to spend a week in a wonderful destination, learning and exploring with a group of fun and like-minded divers and snorkelers, then don't miss out on a REEF Trip. Now is the time to book your 2012 Field Survey with one of REEF's expert guides. Get in touch with our travel experts at Caradonna to find out more and to book your space - 1-877-295-7333 (REEF), or via e-mail REEF@caradonna.com. Details are given below and more information can be found online at http://www.REEF.org/trips
April 21-28 - Nevis - Oualie Beach Resort. Led by Christy Semmens, REEF Director of Science.
May 26-June 2 (SOLD OUT) - Sun Dancer II, Belize - Lionfish Control Study, led by Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects and Peter Hughes.
June 9-16 (SOLD OUT) and June 16-23 (2 SPACES LEFT) - San Blas Islands, Panama - Coral Lodge, led by Paul Humann, REEF Co-Founder and Renowned Underwater Photographer and Author.
July 14-21 - Lionfish workshop in Dominica - Dive Dominica and Anchorage Hotel, led by Lad Akins, REEF Director of Special Projects.
July 28 - August 4 - San Salvador, Bahamas - Riding Rock Inn and Marina, led by Paul Humann, REEF Co-Founder and Renowned Underwater Photographer and Author.
September 22-29 (6 SPACES LEFT)- Sea of Cortez, Baja Mexico - Rocio del Mar liveaboard, led by Drs. Christy and Brice Semmens, REEF Director of Science, REEF Researcher.
September 26-30 (SOLD OUT) - Hornby Island, British Columbia - Hornby Island Diving, led by Janna Nichols, REEF Outreach Coordinator.
October 6-13 - Bermuda - Triangle Diving and Grotto Bay Hotel, led by Ned and Anna DeLoach, REEF Board Members and World-Famous Marine Life Authors and Photographer/Videographers.
November 10-17, British Virgin Islands - Cuan Law liveaboard, led by Heather George, REEF Expert.
December 1-8 (SOLD OUT), Cozumel - Aqua Safari, led by Tracey Griffin, REEF Expert.
REEF members are at the heart of our grassroots marine conservation programs. Over 43,000 divers, snorkelers, students, and armchair naturalists stand behind our mission.
This month we highlight Rick Long. Rick joined REEF in 1997 and has conducted 469 surveys, making him one of Hawaii's top surveyors. Mike is a member of the Hawaii REEF Advanced Assessment Team and he lives on Maui. Here's what he had to say about REEF:
How did you first get involved with REEF?
I did my first REEF survey while diving in the Florida Keys and went inactive until I moved to Maui and joined the fish count at the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. I learned the Hawaiian reef fish by participating in the monthly activities of a local REEF group called Fish Identification Network (FIN) and by volunteering at the Maui Ocean Center aquarium. I learned even more about fish behavior and corals by volunteering with the Herbivore project at Kahekili Beach, doing Reef Check surveys, and with Eyes of the Reef monitoring for coral bleaching and disease. Volunteering in all of these venues, I have learned not only the common names, but also some of the scientific and Hawaiian names of fish and other marine life. I am an enthusiastic advocate for Citizen Science.
In addition to surveying, what other ways are you involved with REEF?
Through the years, I have participated in monthly REEF survey shore dives organized by FIN and other groups. I have also taught Coral Reef slide shows at the NOAA whale sanctuary in Kihei that includes tips for visitors wanting to get in the ocean to see the beautiful fish and coral reefs in our state.
What is your favorite dive spot and favorite fish?
My friends are just as enthusiastic as I am, and can paddle outrigger canoes, scuba dive, or snorkel almost every day of the week in Maui. My favorite coral reef to survey is Maonakala, located within the marine protected area of the ʻĀhihi-Kīnaʻu Natural Area Reserve, and is one of the few coral reefs not in decline. One of my all time favorite fish is a special little chub or rudderfish that lives on this reef. The Hawaiians had a name for the Pacific Gray Chub (Kyphosus sandwicensis) in a yellow morph coloration and they called it the “Queen Nenue” (nay-new-ay).
On behalf of the REEF Staff and Trustees, I want to thank all the donors from our Winter Fundraising campaign who helped us reach our target goal. With your help, we can continue REEF's core conservation programs, such as fighting the Lionfish invasion in the Caribbean, protecting Grouper spawning aggregations, collecting data through our Volunteer Fish Survey Project, and providing free online "Fishinars" to the general public and fish experts worldwide.
If you haven't given already, there are a few days left in our campaign to receive my limited, signed print of a Grouper Moon aggregation for contributions of $250 and over. In addition to donating online, you can also call REEF Headquarters at 305-852-0030, or mail in your donation to REEF, PO Box 246, Key Largo, FL 33037. Thank you again for your support!
Earlier this summer, we proudly released the next generation of REEF survey technology, the REEF Data Entry Program. When surveying began in 1993, divers and snorkelers wrote out each sighted fish species on a slate and submitted the surveys to the database using paper scantron forms. In 1994, we developed pre-printed underwater survey paper to make surveying easier, and in 2005 we said goodbye to bubble-filling and premiered online data entry using the Internet. The time had come to innovate yet again.
With our members in mind, we looked to develop a data entry tool that would meet the varied needs of our surveyors, including those who are traveling or live in areas with limited Internet access. The REEF Survey Data Entry Program allows our volunteers to enter REEF surveys without an Internet connection. When they have access to the web, the entered surveys are uploaded to the REEF online entry portal. Users then logon to the portal, complete error checking, and submit the surveys to REEF. The program operates on both Mac and PC computers, and is available for all of REEF’s survey regions. Our Beta-testers and early users agree it’s a great program, and many of them prefer the offline data entry program over online data entry.
The program is free to download at: www.REEF.org/dataentryprogram. Give it a try next time you survey! We hope you enjoy the program as much as we do. Feel free to send feedback to data@REEF.org. REEF extends a huge thank you to programmer, Chris MacGregor, for his work on this project, as well as REEF members who encouraged us to pursue this option and made contributions to support its development.
Data generated by the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project provide an unparalleled opportunity to examine patterns in reef fish diversity (the number and types of species) at the scales of reefs, regions, and even an entire ocean basin. Authors of one recent scientific study took advantage of the over 25,000 Expert REEF surveys conducted at 80 sites from 6 Caribbean ecoregions over 17 years. The authors of the paper, which was recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, used the REEF data to evaluate patterns of biodiversity across many spatial scales (from individual sites to ecoregions). They also incorporated factors such as fisheries impacts and how connected different regions are to each other through ocean currents. They compared levels of different types of diversity-- alpha diversity (α-diversity) that explains local diversity (the number of species found in a given place), and beta diversity (β-diversity) that explains the difference in diversity among sites. Their results showed that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha diversity, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. Studies like this one that examine regional patterns of diversity in coral reef systems are important because of declining biodiversity in many areas. The paper's citation is: Francisco-Ramos V, Arias-González JE . 2013. Additive Partitioning of Coral Reef Fish Diversity Across Hierarchical Spatial Scales Throughout the Caribbean. PLoS ONE. 8(10): e78761. To read the full paper, or any of the other 50+ scientific papers that have included REEF data and programs, visit the REEF Publications page.
Every month, scientists, government agencies, and other groups request raw data from REEF’s Fish Survey Project database. Here is a sampling of who has asked for REEF data recently and what they are using it for:
- Scientists from NOAA’s Office of Protected Resources are using REEF data to evaluate populations of seabass and grouper in the Caribbean.
- A scientist from the University of Washington School of Marine and Environmental Affairs is using REEF data on fishes and invertebrates to evaluate MPAs in the Puget Sound.
- A professor from California State San Luis Obispo is using REEF data to evaluate populations of three large parrotfish species in the Caribbean (Blue, Midnight, Rainbow).