Application Deadline For Fall Internships Approaching

Do you know a young adult who is interested in ocean conservation, research, education, and diving? Applications are currently being accepted for the Fall REEF Marine Conservation Internship positions. Every four months, REEF invites hundreds of applicants to compete for four internship positions. The chosen interns implement community outreach and education programs focused on reef fish identification and lionfish handling and collection. Interns also dive and volunteer with partner organizations in the Florida Keys. Examples of some average daily intern activities include computer data entry, helping to write and layout newsletters and flyers, packaging orders, answering phone calls and e-mails, greeting visitors at REEF Headquarters, biological assessment fieldwork and data analysis, and community education and outreach.

For more information on this program or if you know someone who would like to apply, please visit the Internship Webpage or email General Manager, Martha Klitzkie, at Applications for the Fall internship are due June 30th.

Upcoming Fishinars -- Featuring a Great Line Up of Guest Speakers

Artwork by Ray Troll.

We have lined up a great Fishinar schedule for 2014, including marine fish icons Milton Love and Ray Troll! We also will see an east versus west fish face off between Andy Lamb and Andy Martinez, a "Coralinar" and a "Crabinar", and more. Not sure what Fishinar is? These popular online REEF webinar training sessions provide fishie fun in the comfort of your own home. Fishinars are free, and open to all REEF members. You need to register for each session you want to attend. No special software is required, just a web browser. Upcoming sessions include:


Spineless Critters Series: Pacific NW Invertebrate ID - Taught by Janna Nichols -- January 8, 9, 15, and 16th, including Sponges and Stingers, Gettin' Crabby, Marvelous Molluscs, and Stars and Squirts

Squirrels, Soldiers & Cardinals: Seeing Red? Count on It! - Taught by Jonathan Lavan -- January 21

California Lookalikes! - Taught by Janna Nichols -- February 5th

Top 25 Fish in the South Atlantic States - Taught by Christy Pattengill-Semmens -- February 25th

Crabinar! - Taught by Greg Jensen -- February 26th

What I Did On My Fall Vacation – Research on the Fishes of Southern California Oil/Gas Platforms - With Milton Love -- March 25th

A Few Mind-Blowing Fish Every Ichthyo-Geek Should Know About - With Ray Troll -- April 16th

Coralinar! - Taught by Marilyn Brandt -- May 29th

East Coast vs. West Coast - With Andy Martinez and Andy Lamb -- June 19th

New Fishinars are always being added. Check out the Webinar Training page ( for the most up-to-date listing and to register for each session.

REEF 2014 Lionfish Derby Series Released

In the summer of 2014, recreational divers in Florida and the Bahamas will once again assemble teams, scout out hundreds of sites, sharpen their spears, ready their nets, and hone their collecting skills to prepare for another REEF summer lionfish derby series. Six years ago, REEF began hosting lionfish derbies throughout Florida and the Caribbean to address the lionfish invasion. Not only do these events significantly reduce lionfish numbers, they also increase awareness, provide samples for research, train divers in safe removal techniques, and help develop the market for lionfish as a food fish. Teams will compete for cash prizes for the most, biggest, and smallest lionfish. Hopes are high for this summer derby series, as divers removed 2,790 lionfish in these single day events in 2013. To register or learn more, visit 2014 derby dates and locations are: June 28 - Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas; July 19 - Fort Lauderdale, FL; August 16 - Palm Beach County, FL; September 13 - Key Largo, FL.

Upcoming Fishinars - Life on Oil Platforms, Lionfish Research, and more!

REEF Lionfish Coordinator, Liz Underwood, will review all of our latest work on combating this invader during a special Fishinar on December 3.

As the year winds down, we still have a few educational REEF Fishinars remaining. Check out the full schedule at And keep an eye on that space because we will be adding new ones for 2015 soon. Fishinars coming up include:

  • That Face, That Face, That Wonderful Face! Top 12 Blennies of the Caribbean - Jonathan Lavan, November 4th
  • What I Did on My Fall Vacation - Research on the Fishes of Southern California Oil and Gas Platforms - Dr. Milton Love, UC Santa Barbara, November 10th
  • Lionfish Myth Busters, Liz Underwood, December 3rd

Explore our Fishinar webpage, register for the sessions you like, and we'll see you online! No special software or is required - just a computer with speakers and an internet connection. And did we mention they are FREE to REEF members!

Membership Madness a Success

REEF’s first Month of Membership Madness was a huge success! In April, lucky Michelle Rogers joined as our 60,000th member, and we far exceeded our goal, with 603 new members signing up. If you are a new member, WELCOME to REEF! The winner of the wetsuit giveaway will be announced April 15 on our Facebook page. If you haven’t yet seen the video that our brilliant intern Jack Fishman produced about joining REEF, we highly recommend it (visit! From being a part of the largest marine citizen science project in the world to making new fishy friends, REEF’s community of members will guarantee you a fishy adventure. Also, included in this month’s activities was an infographic about our incredible REEF members. This graphic illustrates an amazing diversity of support that really highlights how REEF truly depends on our members and volunteers to expand our knowledge of our underwater world. Thank you for everything!

2016 Fishinar Lineup

Don't miss the Manta-nar on January 12th! Photo by Carol Cox.

We are very excited to announce our 2016 Fishinar schedule. We have a great lineup of free and fun webinars, covering a wide array of ocean topics. In addition to many fish and invertebrate ID classes, we also have a Manta-nar on the schedule, as well as sessions with dynamic guest speakers including Ned and Anna DeLoach, Ray Troll, and Val Kells. In total, we have 23 Fishinars planned for next year!

If you haven't yet attended a Fishinar, add it to your list of resolutions to do in the new year. From the comfort of your own home, or on-the-go on your mobile device, you can join in the camaraderie of your fellow fish-fanatics and learn from experts in our short, free, fun and interactive-styled Fishinars. Check out for more information, a complete list of classes, registration information, access to archives, and more. And keep checking back because more sessions are always being added.

2016 Fishinars (all times listed are EST)

Lesser Known Fish of Cozumel, Wednesday Jan 6th at 8pm, with Tracey Griffin & Jonathan Lavan

Manta-nar, Tuesday Jan 12th at 9pm, with Joshua Stewart from Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Pacific Northwest Invertebrates and Algae, Tuesday Jan 19th at 10pm, with Janna Nichols

The Grunt Club: New Members, Thursday Feb 11th at 8pm, with Jonathan Lavan

Northern vs Southern Gulf of Mexico, parts 1 & 2, Tuesday Feb 23rd and Feb 25th at 8pm, with Carol Cox

Cool Sharks, Thursday Mar 17th at 8pm, with Artist Ray Troll

Common Reef Fishes of Tubbataha Reef Philippines, Monday Mar 21st at 8pm, with Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens

Fishes of the Philippines Muck, Wednesday Mar 23rd at 8pm, with Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens

The Lionfish Invasion: Current Findings and Control Efforts, Wednesday Apr 6th at 8pm, with Emily Stokes

More Holy Moly Gobies, Wednesday Apr 13th at 8pm, with Jonathan Lavan

Fishes and Invertebrates of the Carolinas, Tuesday Apr 19th and Thursday Apr 21st at 8pm, with Janna Nichols and Frank Krasovec

You Do WHAT For a Living?: The next chapter, Tuesday Apr 26th at 8pm, with Scientific Illustrator and Author Val Kells

Hawaii Life on a Coral Head: Hawkfishes and more, Wednesday May 4th, at 10pm, with Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens

The Wrasse Class- Back in School, Tuesday May 17th at 8pm, with Jonathan Lavan

Northeast's Less Frequently Seen Fish, Thursday May 26th at 8pm, with Janna Nichols and Jason Feick

Life in the Muck: Blue Heron Bridge, Wednesday Jun 1st at 8pm, with Carlos & Allison Estape

Super Duper Groupers, Part Deux, Wednesday Jun 22nd at 8pm, with Jonathan Lavan

Less Frequently Seen Fish of Virgin Gorda BVI, Thursday Jul 14th at 8pm, with Janna Nichols

Fishes of Bermuda, Tuesday Aug 30th at 8pm, with Ned and Anna DeLoach

Underwater Residents of Barkley Sound BC, Thursday, Sep 8th at 10pm, with Janna Nichols

Common Fishes of Micronesia, Wednesday Sep 21st at 8pm, with Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens

Sea Saba Underwater, Tuesday Oct 4th at 8pm, with Jonathan Lavan

Hawaii Life in the Sand, Monday Nov 14th at 10pm, with Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens

**All times Eastern Time**

REEF Events for August

Here's what we're up to in the coming month:

September 11-16, 2007: Cape Cod Field Survey led by Joe Cavanaugh. 

Click here for more information.


September 22-29, 2007: Bonaire Field Survey led by Ned and Anna DeLoach. 

Click here for more information.

Final Report on Five-Year Spiegel Grove Assessment

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Note the encrusting organisms after just 5 years and the Purple Reeffish, Photo by Mike Ryan
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Invertebrate community recruitment to the Spiegel structure, Photo by Mike Ryan
Blackfin Snapper school on Spiegel Grove, Photo by Mike Ryan
Large Arrow Crab, Photo by Mike Ryan
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Midnight Parrotfish and Bluehead Wrasses, Photo by Mike Ryan
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Cubera Snapper on Spiegel, Photo by Alison Johnson

This past summer, REEF completed its 5-year monitoring and assessment of the ex-Navy Landing Ship Dock, U.S.S. Spiegel Grove, intentionally deployed in 130' deep water as an artificial reef off Key Largo in June of 2002. At the time of its sinking, the Spiegel, at 510' in length, was the largest vessel intentionally sunk as an artificial reef. More recently, REEF completed its final report on the data collected, largely through members' efforts in the water these last few years, so a multus gratia (big thank you) from all of us at REEF to those of you who participated on the Advanced Assessment Team monitoring of the Spiegel. This was every bit your project as much as ours. I am asked quite often in the field how REEF surveyor efforts contribute to science, conservation, and education so I want to share with you some of our findings as the Spiegel assessment serves as a great example of the power of concerned and active citizen scientists to effect positive changes in our communities. For a full viewing of our final report, please visit our website at 5 Year Spiegel Grove Monitoring .

Before I highlight a few of our findings, let's go over what our methods were for conducting our Spiegel assessment. Surveys were conducted using the Roving Diver Technique (RDT), a non-point visual survey method that serves as the mainstay for most REEF efforts in the water. The purpose of this method is to gather a comprehensive species list with sighting frequency and relative abundance estimates, for fish species only in the case of this study. Staff and REEF volunteers all had to be members of the Advanced Assessment Team (AAT) for REEF (learn more about how to become an AAT member Each monitoring event consisted of 4 days of two-tank monitoring dives at the Spiegel Grove and 7 surrounding reference sites.

The overall objective of the study was to assess any changes in fish community structure over time with the addition of the newly deployed artificial reef, changes not just to the Spiegel site, but changes to the surrounding natural reef sites as well. A central biological question as to the merits of vessel type artificial reef deployments is whether or not they add fish species in terms of both numbers of fish (biomass) and numbers of fish species (biodiversity) to the artificial reef and the surrounding natural reef sites. In other words, in the Field of Dreams metaphor, if you build it will they come and where will they come from? Ultimately, resource managers and other stakeholders hope that the addition of the artificial reef adds fish not only to the targeted site, but seeds surrounding reefs with the reproductive output from the resident fish population. The scale of these questions cannot be adequately addressed in a 5-year pilot study such as the one REEF just completed and that was not our charge but it is important to understand the concept behind sinking ships as artificial reefs. And we should commend Monroe County, the Upper Keys Artificial Reef Foundation (UKARF), and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) for funding this initial pilot study. A second socioeconomic question not addressed in REEF's work asks the important question of how much SCUBA diving pressure is decreased on natural reefs by the addition of a top recreational dive site such as the Spiegel and how much additional tourist revenue is gained? Finding answers to both the biological and economic questions above are critical in providing guidance for future marine resource management decisions on whether or not to deploy artificial reefs of this type and when and where the sinking of these large retired vessels is appropriate.

Okay, some quick highlights but again for the full report, please visit our website. Over the 5-year study, REEF conducted 76 RDT surveys on the Spiegel itself and another 445 survey dives on the surrounding 7 reference sites. 191 fish species were documented on the Spiegel Grove for all surveys combined. 46 species of fish were observed on the Spiegel just one month after deployment with the average number of species climbing to 76 per monitoring event thereafter. Approximately 3 years after deployment (Aug 2005), persistence in species composition at the Spiegel Grove site through time had increased to levels closer to those of the surrounding reefs. Striped grunts and Tomtates were immediate arrivals on the newly deployed site. Currently, 5 years post deployment, fish species composition on the Spiegel site is more akin to what you would expect on a deeper reef site including schools of Blackfin Snapper, Creole Wrasses, Bluehead Wrasses, Purple Reeffish, Sunshinefish, Bluerunners, Yellowtail Reeffish, Greenblotch Parrotfish, Tomtates, Spotfin Hogfish, Yellowmouth Grouper, Black Grouper, and the Federally protected Golilath Grouper (for a complete list of species sighted and statistical comparisons between study sites take a peak at the report). Blackcap and Fairy Basslets rarely occur in the Keys but interestingly, on several occasions, both have been surveyed on the Spiegel, most notably after hurricane storm surges from offshore. Of course, the Spiegel originally sunk on its starboard side was righted during Hurricane Dennis in July of 2005, confounding results of our survey shortly thereafter. And large, deeply sunk vessels such as this one certainly offer numerous hiding places to groupers in particular, making full visual assessments difficult. We have included in our report suggestions for future studies as well.

REEF would like to thank Mike Ryan of Horizon Divers for supplying important anectodal information about the Spiegel. He was one of the first divers on the newly deployed vessel and has logged more than 240 dives on site since then, meticulously recording fish and invertebrate sightings in the true naturalist vein. Also, REEF thanks Quiesscence Divers and Horizon Divers and Scott Fowler for providing boat and logistical support for all of our diving efforts over the past 5 years. This spring (2008), the Hoyt Vandenberg is scheduled for deployment a few miles off the coast of Key West. REEF will be leading the monitoring efforts over a similar 5-year time period and we'll keep you posted on our efforts. Two suggested readings are referenced in our report, one by Arena et al (2007) and the other by Leeworthy et al (2006) assessing biological and economic impacts of artificial reefs, respectively.

Happy Holidays everyone and if you are visiting Key Largo next year, visit the wreck and see for yourself how things are coming along.


Turks and Caicos Field Survey aboard Aggressor II

Turks and Caicos Survey Group (sans Marty Levy, off chasing a whale blenny)
Suzanne Rose with one of two invasive Red Lionfish seen on Turks Survey
Patricia Broom Surveying Wall on North Caicos Island
Caribbean Reef Shark, one of many seen during the week
Jill Ericsson surveying the wall, looking for Cave and Threeline basslets

REEF recently completed our Turks and Caicos Field Survey aboard the Aggressor II on Saturday, April 26.  We had a tremendous effort by a stellar group of 20 REEF surveyors.  Although we have not yet processed the data, I can give a few hints at what we saw during the week-long trip. 

Overall, the group surveyed at least 213 fish species over 12 dive sites and 26 survey dives, 5 dives on most days.  We surveyed many habitat types including hard and soft coral areas, patch reefs and grass beds but most of our efforts were concentrated along the famed walls along the islands.  Some notable fish sightings included:  Black snapper (Apsilus dentatus), Golden hamlet (Hypoplectrus gummigutta), Dwarf blenny (Starksia nanodes), Papillose blenny (Acanthemblemaria chaplini), Cardinal soldierfish (Plectrypops retrospinis), Lofty triplefin (Enneanectes altivelis), Almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana), Fringed filefish (Monacanthus ciliatus), Wall goby (Gobiosoma pallens), Black brotula (Stygnobrotula latebricola), Goldline blenny (Malacoctenus aurolineatus),  and Punk blenny (Acanthemblemaria sp).  We surveyed some large schools of Horse-Eye jacks and saw a number of Caribbean reef sharks.  We also had two confirmed Red lionfish (Pterois volitans) sightings (see picture with article).  Unfortunately, if there are two Lionfish surveyed, there are undoubtedly many more in the Turks and Caicos islands already.

We had a seasoned group of REEF members, many of whom had been on numbers of past survey trips and 60% of the group participants were expert surveyors. Consequently, our efforts were rewarded with lots of cryptic species sightings such as the ones listed above. The hospitality of the Aggressor crew was superb, gracious, and quite professional.  One of the nice things about a live-aboard field survey is the camaraderie that develops between members who share a number of traits such as a love of diving, conservation-minded attitude towards our marine resources, a desire to make positive changes to said resources, and a general fish geekiness for lack of a better term, that rears it's head from time to time in visceral debates about whether someone really saw a Wall goby or not. 

Fortunately for us, many members brought their cameras and we were able to verify most unusual sightings with pictures.   The learning curve is leveled while on live-aboard with everyone sharing diving/surveying tips and helping each other find and verify common and rare sightings alike.

I would like to congratulate several participants on reaching new experience levels during the week:  Barbara Anderson, Marty Levy, Larry Draper, and Kayla Serote all tested into level 5 surveyors.  Suzanne Rose, Marie Robbins, and Kay Tiddmann are all new level 3 surveyors. Jerry Dickman is our newest level 2 surveyor.  Congratulations to all the participants for a great survey effort for the week and all the good spirit shared.  Also, thanks James Brook and Kristi Draper for taking Kay Tidemann under their wings and teaching her during the week, she was our most improved surveyor as a result and her enthusiasm spilled over to the group. I hope to see many of you in the water on surveys later this year.  I am currently planning our 2009 Field Survey schedule and will have more details on that in our next Enews edition in May. There are still spaces available on two Field Survey trips for 2008, Paul Humann's Discovery Tour in Key Largo (June 21-28) and the Sea of Cortez with Don Jose (Oct 5-12).  If interested in either of these trips, please contact Joe Cavanaugh at 305-852-0030 for the Discovery Tour and Jeanne at Baja Expeditions at 800-843-6967 for the Sea of Cortez trip.


REEF Participates in International Coral Reef Symposium

Grouper Moon scientist, Dr. Brice Semmens, presented findings in the ICRS Reef Management session.
Joe Cavanaugh talks with an ICRS participant about REEF's programs.

REEF staff recently returned from the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, where nearly 3,000 scientists, conservationists, and government officials met to compare notes, network and identify problems and solutions for the ocean's most delicate ecosystem. This is the keystone scientific meeting on coral reef science. REEF Director of Science, Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens, gave a talk on the science and management applications of the REEF database and presented a research poster on the same topic. REEF Director of Field Operations, Joe Cavanaugh, presented a research poster on the 5-year monitoring project of the Wellwood Restoration Project in the Florida Keys. Additionally, REEF data were included in several talks and research posters by other scientists, including an analyses of Conch Reef status and trends by Dr. Steve Gittings, an evaluation of fish resources in Biscayne Bay by Dr. Todd Kellison, and the effect artisanal fisheries in developing nations have on predatory fishes by Dr. Chris Stallings. The Lionfish invasion was also a hot topic and REEF collaborators from Simon Fraser University presented a research poster on the effect of lionfish on cleanerfish in the Bahamas. Dr. Brice Semmens presented results from the Grouper Moon Project and how results from this cutting edge research being conducted by REEF and our collaborators can be used to inform marine reserve planning and evaluation.

REEF also participated in the ICRS Education Center. REEF staff and interns hosted an exhibit booth, which was a great success in spreading the word about REEF and our important conservation programs. The Grouper Moon Project was featured in the Solutions portion of the "Our Reefs: Caribbean Connections" traveling exhibit and the Grouper Moon documentary film was shown in the Coral Theater. Participating in scientific conferences such as ICRS is an important part of REEF's overall strategy of linking the diving community with scientists and resource managers.

Design by Joanne Kidd, development by Ben Weintraub