REEF Advanced Assessment Team Member, Dave Grenda, recently co-authored a paper documenting behavioral observations of young Great Barracuda occurring on live bottom sub-tropical reefs primarily at Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of Georgia. For the past three years Dave assisted University of Connecticut researcher, Dr. Peter Auster, in studying behavioral interactions of piscivores and their prey. During REEF surveys on these cruises, Dave and the other researchers documented young-of-year (YOY) Great Barracuda (those individuals that had very recently settled to the reef, and were between 2-3 inches in length) hunting YOY Tomtate and Silverside that were taking refuge under ledges. Groups of YOY Barracuda would attack, capture, and consume the prey. Prey that escaped the Barracuda retreated to reef edges and were often consumed by bottom-dwelling adult piscivores such as Black Sea Bass, Bank Sea Bass, and Scamp Grouper. These findings indicate that given the strong functional role the young Barracuda have on driving species interactions, greater attention should be given to the roles played by the wider diversity of YOY piscivores recruiting to reef communities. The paper was recently published in the scientific journal Southeastern Naturalist. You can find a link to this and all published papers that have included REEF data on our Publications page.
A great way to wear REEF! Famoust marine life artist, Rogest, took his famous dotty style to the REEF logo. The dotty REEF Flag is on the front and "Diving that Counts" is proudly displayed on the back. Available in two colors - Charcoal Gray and Indigo Blue. Head over to the REEF Store today and get yours. We have also added several new Pacific marine life ID books and new waterproof ID cards. Go check them out! www.REEF.org/store
For more than 20 years, REEF has been conserving marine ecosystems through education, service, and research. It’s an exciting time for REEF as we work hard to extend the reach of our innovative marine conservation programs. One way REEF is doing this is by inviting diverse leaders to the Board of Trustees to help guide the foundation, including these three new members:
Peter A. Hughes is the Founder of the DivEncounters Alliance, a group of independent live-aboard dive operators. Peter is one of the diving world’s foremost live-aboard operators, having spent more than forty years in the dive industry and over the past 25 years, building his former live-aboard company, Peter Hughes Diving, Inc.
Alexander Alexiou, is a successful Broker for Island Real Estate based in Harbour Island, Bahamas. He has traveled extensively and brings unique insight into the culture and ecology of islands throughout the tropical western Atlantic.
Robert Ramin, formerly the Executive Director of the National Aquarium in Washington, DC, is now the Chief Executive Officer of the Washington Animal Rescue League. He has extensive fundraising and membership development experience and has been a leader at the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Management Schools for the past 16 years.
Peter, Alex and Bob join REEF co-founders, Paul Humann and Ned DeLoach, Jim Dalle Pazze, Andy Dehart, Anna DeLoach, and Marty Snyderman on the REEF Board of Trustees. Welcome!
Five days remain in our fundraising campaign to raise $10,000 for our REEF Marine Conservation Internship Program, and we are only halfway there! Help us reach our goal by donating today. Please consider supporting these enthusiastic young professionals as they gain critical career skills and provide REEF with invaluable program support. Although less known, the REEF Marine Conservation Internship Program is one of our most successful endeavors. Our interns are involved in many aspects in the day-to-day running of REEF, and many have gone on to work in academia, at government agencies, or for other ocean conservation non-profits. Your donation will help sponsor an intern, covering living expenses, mentoring and training, and diving opportunities during their four-month experience. To those who have donated already, thank you for making such a tremendous impact on the future of REEF’s interns and aspiring marine conservationists.
REEF Staff Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens (Director of Science) and Lad Akins (Director of Special Projects), joined over 300 scientists, resource managers, and fishers at the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (GCFI) meeting last week in Corpus Christi, Texas. All three of REEF's major programs were represented.
Christy presented a research poster on an analysis of patterns of rarity in fishes in the Caribbean basin using the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project database. Over 90,000 surveys from our citizen science program were used to explore where the rare things are, and why some places seem to have so many more of them than others.
Lad co-chaired a session on Invasive Lionfish, featuring 21 talks on the current state of lionfish research and control efforts in the Atlantic. During this session, REEF Affiliate Scientist, Dr. Stephanie Green, presented her findings on the efficacy of lionfish derbies. Her research shows that one-day derby events like the ones REEF coordinates in Florida and the Bahamas can result in a significant reduction of lionfish densities, up to 70%, over 180 square km, all the result of volunteer teams. Lad and Nova Southeastern University graduate student and upcoming REEF Intern, Adam Nardelli, also presented a research poster on the demographics of participants in the 2013 Key Largo Lionfish Derby.
And finally, REEF Grouper Moon Project collaborators, Dr. Brice Semmens (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) and Dr. Scott Heppell (Oregon State University) both presented talks during the fish spawning aggregation session, and we were also joined by collegues from the Cayman Islands Department of Environment (CIDOE). Brice presented findings from our research using Passive Acoustic Monitoring on a multi-species spawning aggregation on Little Cayman, and Scott presented a theory for why spawning aggregations have collapsed around the world and how our Grouper Moon research can be used to help inform future protection efforts.
A new scientific paper was recently published in the journal Evolutionary Applications that used REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project. REEF data were used to validate population estimates of Black Rockfish throughout western Canada, Washington State, and Oregon. These results were then used to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserve networks in these areas. The authors of the study estimated the scale of dispersal from genetic data in the black rockfish, and compared this estimate with the distance between Rockfish Conservation Areas that aim to protect this species (essentially evaluating whether the reserves are "connected" enough). Their findings showed that within each country, the distance between conservation areas was generally well connected. The distance between the networks in the two countries, however, was greater than the average dispersal per rockfish generation.
You can read the paper online here. Visit our Publications page to see all of the scientific papers that have been published using REEF data and projects. The paper's citation is: KE Lotterhos, SJ Dick and DR Haggarty. 2014. Evaluation of rockfish conservation area networks in the United States and Canada relative to the dispersal distance for black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Evolutionary Applications. (2014) 238–259.
We say it often - REEF is what it is because of our fantastic members. The grassroots nature of the organization is reflected in all aspects of our work, including the amazing volunteers like Audrey Smith who help with daily operating tasks at REEF HQ, the networks of regional REEF partners who enlist new REEF members and provide continuing education and survey opportunities for active surveyors, our members who generously support REEF with financial donations, and of course the thousands of survey volunteers who submit marine life surveys each year.
As the corps of active and experienced REEF surveyors has grown, we have been fortunate to have some of those members take their support and interest in REEF to the next level by forming local REEF groups. Two such REEF "clubs" are FIN (the Fish Identification Network) and the Pacific Northwest Critter Watchers. FIN is a REEF club based in Maui, and is touted as an opportunity to join friends and fellow fish lovers in exploring the coral reefs of Maui. The club is for all interested divers and snorklers, and promotes marine conservation and the objectives of REEF. FIN was founded by Terri and Mike Fausnaugh (Mike is also a member of the REEF Hawaii Advanced Assessment Team (AAT)) and is supported by the cadre of REEFers that REEF partner, Liz Foote of Project S.E.A.-Link, has generated in Hawaii through the years. There are monthly (sometimes weekly) FIN dives at various beaches on Maui and at every event FIN folks set up a REEF station on the beach with survey materials and identification reference guides in an attempt to lure in new afishianados! The PNW Critter Watchers encourages all divers in Washington and Oregon to become underwater naturalists. Through training and quarterly REEF survey dives, Critter Watcher founders and REEF Pacific AAT members, Janna Nichols and Wes Nicholson, aim to put the fun in critter watching and promote REEF surveying in the Pacific Northwest. Janna also maintains a Critter Watchers website that includes a fish of the month feature, an events listing, unusual sightings reported by fellow Critter Watchers, and congratulations to REEF surveyors who have advanced through the REEF experience level system.
These home-grown REEF clubs are a great way to help spread the fun and enjoyment of REEF surveying to a local dive community. We are grateful that we have such enthusiastic and supportive volunteers who are willing to help spread the REEF word. These on-the-ground activities could never be accomplished without your help!
Last Summer during a dive with Pacific Adventure Charters in Hood Canal, Washington, a group of REEF Pacific Advanced Assessment Team (AAT) surveyors came across something unexpected. As part of REEF’s funded project with The Russell Family Foundation, the team’s goal was to look for invasive tunicates and do REEF marine life surveys on several previously unsurveyed sites. While they found the invasive tunicates they were looking for, they also found a derelict fishing net that was damaging fragile habitat and ensnaring marine life.
AAT members, Pete Naylor, Steve Rubin and Janna Nichols found the abandoned gill net on a wall, amid large growths of Cloud Sponge (Aphrocallistes vastus), one of Puget Sound’s rarest and longest lived animals and an invertebrate species monitored in the REEF Pacific Northwest Volunteer Survey Project program. As the name implies, cloud sponges form pale, irregular cloud-shaped colonies, which can be more than ten feet across and seven feet high. These colonies attach to rocky surfaces and provide complex habitat for a variety of marine species. The nearly invisible monofilament derelict gill net was draped over and around the cloud sponge colonies, clearly causing damage. Dungeness crab and other invertebrates lay dead and entangled in the net’s folds.
Concerned by what she saw that day, Janna contacted the Northwest Straits Commission, a regional marine conservation initiative that runs a derelict gear removal program. Given the net’s direct threat to the safety of divers and that it was causing clear harm to marine life and habitat, the Commission made removing the gill net in Dewatto Bay a high priority. After an initial search in the Fall 2007 that failed to locate the net, the net was successfully located with the help of REEF members Keith Clements and Rob Holman. Trained commercial divers removed the net from the fragile cloud sponge reef earlier this month. It was clear during the removal operation that the net had swung in the current and scraped much of the rocky outcrop clean of marine life. But cloud sponge colonies were still present on either side. The initial REEF survey conducted last summer will now serve as a baseline for future monitoring. A REEF team, including Janna, Pete and Steve are planning to revisit the site in May to note any signs of recovery.
Jeff June, the Initiative’s derelict gear program lead commented about the collaborative effort: “This particular net removal effort shows the importance of the REEF divers participation in these types of projects. We would have probably never known there was a gillnet in the vicinity of these amazing sponges had the REEF folks not been monitoring the site.”
Janna made this observation about encountering the net: “From a diver's point of view, it's really shocking to see firsthand just how much marine life a derelict net can snare and kill. We spend hours underwater all around the waters of Washington State, and are specifically attracted to viewing and protecting all the amazing wildlife we can on each dive. Seeing trapped and dead or dying fish and invertebrates is a real shame. Derelict gear not only poses hazards to all the marine life they continue to snare and kill, but to divers as well, because of the entanglement hazards.”
If you are a Pacific Northwest diver, you can report derelict fishing gear in Washington through the WDFW Sighting Form. Other states have similar programs.