Support REEF's Conservation Science Programs

An acoustic receiver listens for pings emitted from nearby tagged fish.
REEF Grouper Moon scientists used acoustic tracking data to better understand Nassau Grouper ecology on Little Cayman.
A mobile receiver used to find tagged fish.
Nassau Grouper is the focus of REEF's Grouper Moon Project. Photo by Brice Semmens.

Acoustic tagging is one of the most powerful marine conservation technologies currently available. REEF uses this technology in both the Grouper Moon Project and the Invasive Lionfish Program to help determine movement, ranges, behavior, and more. But tags and receivers are expensive! We need your help in furthering REEF's valuable marine conservation initiatives by supporting the purchase and implementation of these valuable tools. You can donate securely online at Read on to learn more about these high-tech tools.

What is an acoustic tag, hydrophone, and array? Acoustic tags are small electronic devices that, once secured to a fish, broadcast their identification by ultrasonic sound. Hydrophones that can detect these ultrasonic sounds are placed underwater via a buoy to record the presence or absence of fish. A group of hydrophones strategically placed in an area is called an array. Data from the array are periodically downloaded and analyzed to determine fish movement, residency, behavior, and more.

How do tagging studies make a difference for marine conservation?

  • Allows researchers to determine home ranges of fish to better inform management strategies including sizes and locations of protected areas
  • Documents behavioral activities, such as spawning or seasonal movement, to help researchers and managers better understand the biology and ecology of key species
  • Facilitates collaborative marine research through sharing of hydrophone data and array setups
  • Contributes to inspiring visualizations of fish movements for scientists, policymakers, and marine life enthusiasts

REEF's Grouper Moon Project has relied heavily on this technology to help answer questions necessary to hep conserve Nassau Grouper spawning aggregations. Populations of this iconic species have declined dramatically over the past half-century due to overfishing during winter months as they aggregate to reproduce. To find out more about this activity, REEF researchers and our partners at Cayman Islands Department of Environment set up an array of acoustic receivers and started tagging Nassau Grouper in 2005. Using data from this technology, REEF created a video that shows the remarkable migrations Nassau Grouper undertake during the spawning season. This visualization tool played a critical role in the creation of proposed legislation aimed at species conservation in the Cayman Islands. To watch this movie and read more about it, please click here.

Please make a donation at so REEF can continue using acoustic tagging in projects and programs. This valuable tool helps ensure that we can protect iconic species like Nassau Grouper in the most effective manner. Thank you for your support.

Oceans of Thanks to Our Members

There are a few limited-edition 2015 prints left. Donors of $250 or more, received by April 4, will be sent this signed and numbered, limited edition print of a beautiful Fiji reef scene by Paul Humann.

I want to thank everyone who donated during our winter fundraising campaign. With member support, REEF was able to raise $115,000. Your contributions drive REEF programs, from protecting keystone species to educating the next generation of ocean enthusiasts. If you haven't donated yet, there are still a few limited-edition prints left for donations of $250 and over that are received by April 4th. You can donate online or call us at 305-852-0030.

This year’s campaign focused on our changing seas. Now, more than ever before, it is critical for REEF to monitor the effects from pressures on marine ecosystems. Pressures of great concern include overfishing on endangered species like Nassau Grouper, invasive species that threaten native ecosystems like Lionfish, and temperature changes that shift species habitat range like El Nino. Our dedicated surveyors have seen the changes over decades of underwater exploration. With your donations, REEF can ensure these changes are documented and distributed to researchers for the protection of marine species and habitats.

Thank you again for donating this season!

Review REEF on GreatNonprofits

Do you think REEF is doing great work? Please take a few minutes to tell others about your experience with REEF! Your personal story and feedback help us gain visibility and help us improve. Please share your experience through the website at:

Thanks to such great feedback by our members in 2015, REEF once again achieved "Top-Rated" status on the GreatNonprofits webpage. We need at least ten new reviews in 2016 to maintain this honored status. Please help us.

Here's an excerpt from a recent review from a fellow REEF member: "My daughter and I have been volunteer members of REEF for almost twenty years. She was seven when we joined, and became a certified junior diver at ten- In great part due to the fun we had together as REEF members & volunteers. Avid snorkelers, and divers, we love diving with a purpose. Our favorite "self-challenge" is to see how many species we can identify on outing; always trying to better ourselves!" Thank you!

Stocking Stuffer

REEF Postcard for Sale

The holidays will be upon us before you know it and REEF is encouraging you to go on line to the REEF Store and purchase your holiday stocking stuffers like our beautiful note cards, wonderful books and DVD's.  We still have plenty of Sensational Seas DVD's available as well.  We recently updated the store with a large number of exclusive items that you can only get from REEF, so please check it out and put us on your shopping list as REEF funnels all proceeds to help fund our various programs. 

We would also like to give our warm thanks to Eleanor Cavanaugh who is the artist behind our wonderful collection.  

To buy apparel at our store, click here

To visit our store for your diving materials, click here... 


Happy holiday week! I hope you are looking forward to Thanksgiving and the upcoming holiday season.

REEF is pleased to bring you our monthly update on the many projects that continue to actively engage you, our valuable members, in marine conservation. Before we get there, though, I want to ask for your help in meeting an ambitious but critical goal to keep these projects going: please help REEF raise $100,000 by the end of the year. Please click here to make a secure, tax-deductible donation today.

Your support helped EEF Science Director, Dr. Christy Semmens, participate in the annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute meeting held earlier this month, where she presented the results of monitoring two artificial reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Your support helped REEF Field Operations Director, Joe Cavanaugh, participate in multi-stakeholder training to protect coral reefs in Akumal, Mexico. Your support helped develop new online data entry for the Pacific and Hawaii REEF survey regions, allowing REEF to improve data management. Your support helped REEF promote the Volunteer Survey Project as a diver acquisition eco-activity to the dive industry at DEMA Show 2007. Your support helped to develop an innovative home study course to train divers and snorkelers in "fishwatching" and conducting marine life surveys. Your support counts for a lot at REEF! Please click here to make a secure, tax-deductible donation today.

Other items of interest this month include tips for using the new website, a design contest for the 2008 Field Survey tshirt, important news about the REEF Store and interesting happenings at REEF HQ.

Enjoy your turkey and we'll see you next month!

Best fishes,


Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Visits REEF HQ

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The Congresswoman learns about exotic invasive lionfish from Special Projects Manager, Lad Akins.
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Director of Field Operations Joseph Cavanaugh walks the Congresswoman through the new REEF website.
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Executive Director Leda Cunningham and Chairman of the Board Paul Humann recognize the Congresswoman's service to marine conservation.

On Tuesday, March 4, REEF was pleased to host Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen at its headquarters in Key Largo, Florida. Ros-Lehtinen represents Florida’s 18th district, including Monroe County and the Florida Keys. REEF Board and staff discussed the importance of training volunteers in marine conservation to preserving the long-term health of coral reefs in the Florida Keys and worldwide.

“I am thrilled to be visiting REEF and getting a look at their wonderful conservation and diving programs as this group is comprised of those who truly enjoy the beauty and serenity of the seas, divers and marine conservationists,” Ros-Lehtinen said.

The group laid out plans to train volunteers to conduct biological monitoring and assessment of key managed areas through the REEF Volunteer Survey Project. Ros-Lehtinen suggested presenting scientific findings in local schools and pledged to learn to do marine life surveys on her next visit to the Florida Keys. The potential threat posed by exotic invasive lionfish to the Florida Keys reef tract and ways to educate residents about the problem were also discussed.

“This is a great opportunity to share some of the important work REEF is doing to preserve the natural, national heritage of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem,” said REEF Executive Director, Leda Cunningham. “We are honored to have the Congresswoman at REEF HQ and look forward to working collaboratively on projects such as training volunteers to collect marine life data and keeping exotic invasive lionfish out of Florida Keys waters.”

Akumal Field Survey Report

REEF Surveyors at the Mayan Ruins of Tulum
REEF Fish ID Class at Bahia Principe Resort
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REEF divers blur in one of the cenote's haloclines (saltwater and freshwater interface)
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One of many interesting species of fish endemic to the cenotes is the Sailfin Molly (Poecilia velifera)
Proud new foster parent, REEF volunteer Laura Dias, by Loggerhead nest where she witnessed egg laying the previous night

My husband and I recently joined 10 other REEF volunteers on a Field Survey to Akumal, Mexico. Akumal is located on the Mayan Riviera, quite near the Mayan ruins at Tulum, and about 60+ miles from Cancun, Mexico. Our time was filled with diving and conducting REEF surveys, fish identification seminars, exploring cenotes, and learning about sea turtle nesting research.

We stayed at Gran Bahia Principe Resorts, part of an international resort group, which is really 3 resorts in one and covers an enormous acreage on the ocean. The area was so large that one had to catch one of the resort’s trams to travel from one place to another. Sunny weather is the norm that time of year and we had no rain the entire week.

One of the interesting geographic features in this part of Mexico is the cenote, a type of sinkhole which connects to subterranean bodies of water and sometimes cave systems. The rainwater which fills the cenote is crystal-clear because it has been filtered through rock substrata and contains very little particulate matter. The REEF group had the opportunity to dive and snorkel several of these cenotes when ocean conditions turned too rough for dives on the reef, and it proved to be an amazing and unique experience! Since freshwater and salt water are both found in some cenotes, REEF divers surveyed some unusual fish, and experienced the sensation of diving through a halocline, a region below the surface of a body of water where there is a significant change in density due, in the case of cenotes, to increased salinity. Many of the divers described the experience of ascending from salt water into fresh as akin to a dream state. –“The fresh water was so clear, it was hard to believe I was still underwater!" Strange and unusual formations in the caves accentuated the dreamlike atmosphere. Illuminated only by divers’ lights, stalagmites, stalactites and columns stirred the imagination. Fish, bats and birds find a sanctuary in these caves.

Another unique element of Bahia Principe was a local environmental group, Eco-Bahia, whose members work with the resort to help preserve the stands of coral and other sealife found off the beaches. Eco Bahia’s representative, Diana Garcia Urrutia, explained to REEF members all the goals of their program, including the preservation of sea turtle nests. Many sea turtles, mostly Loggerheads and Hawksbills, return to Bahia Principe’s beaches each summer to dig their nests and deposit their eggs. Members of Eco Bahia along with community volunteers protect the turtles as they nest, then collect the eggs and rebury them in a safe, fenced environment just off the beach. When the baby turtles begin to dig out, Eco Bahia volunteers gather them up and bring in local school children who name each baby and send it safely out to sea with a kiss and a blessing. What an excellent way to assure that younger generations will have an emotional connection to the wildlife of their area!


The Akumal Field Survey was certainly a pleasurable and enlightening experience! To find out more about the REEF Field Survey Program and to book your space on a dive vacation that counts, visit the REEF Trips section of our webpage. To view photo albums from the Akumal Field Survey, click on these links: Akumal album 1Akumal album 2Akumal album 3Akumal album 4. The Akumal Field Survey Data Summary is also available online.

Charter REEF Members Conduct Milestone Dives

Jane Rorex takes a pause to pose during a dive in Bonaire.
The juvenile yellowtail damselfish is one of the Rorex's favorite finds during a REEF survey. Photo by Paul Humann.

Two of REEF's Charter Members, Douglas and Jane Rorex, recently returned from their annual dive vacation to Bonaire. Of course they conducted REEF surveys, documenting the rich fish diversity that is found on Bonaire's reef. But they also each made milestone dives during the trip. Douglas conducted his 3,000th dive and Jane conducted her 700th dive! Both were given medals from the dive resort and Ned and Anna DeLoach, who were in Bonaire for their annual Marine Life Education Program, signed their log books. Douglas and Jane have been with REEF since the beginning -- they are REEF Members 25 and 26. They participated in one of the very first Field Surveys that was held in May 1994. Douglas is a member of the REEF Advanced Assessment Team and has conducted over 350 surveys; Jane has conducted 85 surveys.

Douglas and Jane greatly enjoy their annual trip to Bonaire -- this was their 15th year! Some of their favorite fish finds include the common but always beautiful juvenile yellowtail damselfish as well as the more cryptic frillfin goby and candy basslet. Douglas also conducts surveys on deep reefs in Bonaire (140 feet+), where he finds sargassum triggerfish and striped grunt. Bonaire is also a great place to find frogfish. One of their favorite frogfish stories is about two frogfish that they found on a large coral head at the dive site Windsock. The female had been there for several weeks and was getting larger by the week (obviously ready to mate). One day as Douglas and Jane were hovering nearby, a smaller male frogfish came from underneath the coralhead, waddled over next to her and sort of nuzzled her. She responded by taking her left pectoral fin and giving him a perfect stiff arm. She really smacked him. The rejected male made a hasty somewhat dazzed retreat back to the underside of the coral head. Douglas looked up at Jane to see her practicing the stiff arm manevaure and considering adding it to her repotorie.

Congratulations Douglas and Jane!! Thank you for your enduring support of and involvement with REEF.

Reports From the Field - 2009 Bermuda Field Survey

Thirteen lucky REEF members joined Anna and Ned Deloach, Judie Clee, and Chris Flook for a Field Survey to remember in Bermuda.
The beautiful Puddingwife, one of the largest wrasse species in the western Atlantic. Photo by Ned DeLoach.
Yellowhead Wrasse in Bermuda show unique coloration patterns. Photo by Ned DeLoach.
A teeny tiny, baby Bermuda Chub found under floating Sargassum. Photo by Ned DeLoach.

Over eight years ago, REEF expanded its flagship Fish Survey Project into Bermuda. Since then, local surveyors have contributed over 2500 surveys to the sighting database! In October, thirteen volunteers joined local REEF hosts Judie Clee and Chris Flook for a delightfully full schedule. After two extended survey dives each day, we were treated to a night snorkel and picnic to watch glowworms, a slideshow and dinner at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, a private, guided tour of the nature preserve on Nonsuch Island, and a reception and presentations by the scientists from BREAM (Bermuda Reef Ecosystem Assessment and Mapping Programme). The week was topped off with a grand finale dinner and behind the scenes tour of the Bermuda Aquarium and Zoological Park.

One of the best things about fishwatching is seeing something new. Many areas have endemic fish and experienced fishwatchers know that fish coloration and behaviors can vary a lot from region to region. We arrived prepared to add Bermuda Bream, Bermuda Halfbeaks and Gwelly jacks to our lifelists but found ourselves equally thrilled to see the Bermuda version of the Yellowhead wrasse, called the Redback (for its distinctive red coloration) and the brilliant jewel colors of their Puddingwives. Between dives, Chris Flook, from the Bermuda Aquarium, filled buckets with rafts of Sargassum seaweed and pointed out juvenile chubs, crabs, shrimps, pipefish and frogfish. Judie’s expert eye helped us sort out the damselfish puzzle. We dived several times in an area where the Emerald Parrotfish was once quite common but has not been seen for many years. Our possible sightings have generated some excitement and Judie and Chris are investigating further. Our total species count for the week was 115 and included a rare sighting of a Conchfish.

Thanks go out to Triangle Diving for the welcome BBQ (and Lionfish hors d’oeuvres) and their excellent diving services. And very special thanks to the Bermuda Zoological Society for funding REEF in Bermuda and for underwriting many of our special activities of the week. We’ll be back – and promise that it won’t take eight years!

As this report reminds us -- REEF trips are more than just your average dive vacation. Be sure to check out the REEF trip 2010 schedule, which can be found online at We encourage you to join us on our adventures in 2010 and Take a Trip the Counts!

REEF Volunteers Conduct Annual Expedition to Monterey Bay

The REEF team aboard the Monterey Express.
Long-time Pacific REEF surveyor and AAT member, John Wolfe, reviews sightings with Keith Rootsaert.
Stunning underwater habitat at the outer pinnacles near Carmel Bay in the MBNMS. The bottom is covered with invertebrates, like the colorful Purple Hydrocoral. Great fish life too, like the gopher rockfish resting on the rock. Photo by Chad King/MBNMS.

Members of REEF's Pacific Advanced Assessment Team (AAT) and other active surveyors gathered in central California earlier this month to survey fish and invertebrate life in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). Twenty-two divers conducted over 140 REEF surveys at twelve sites during the week-long project. This was the 8th year that the coordinated expedition has been conducted, and the data collected serve as a valuable time-series of information on the status and trends of populations within the Sanctuary. The team was led by REEF Director of Science, Dr. Christy Pattengill-Semmens. Dr. Steve Lonhart, a lead scientist from the MBNMS, and Chad King from the MBNMS, also joined the group for the week to provide valuable local expertise.

In addition to this annual monitoring project, volunteers conduct REEF surveys year-round during their regular diving activities in the area. REEF surveys have been conducted in the Sanctuary since 1997, and to date, over 2,600 surveys have been submitted from the MBNMS in to the REEF database. Click here to see a current summary of REEF data from the MBNMS. The Sanctuary is home to many colorful fish and invertebrates and is a popular spot for sport diving. REEF data collected in the MBNMS are currently being analyzed to document changes in key rocky reef fish species. Projects like the annual MBNMS monitoring are a great way for active REEF volunteers to apply their skills and expertise. These projects are also just one more reason for REEF surveyors to improve their identification skills and increase their survey experience level.

A big thank you to the participating AAT members and other REEF volunteers, and to Dr. Steve Lonhart and Chad King for their participation and logistical support. We also greatly appreciate George Peterson and Justin Kantor from the Monterey Bay Aquarium for hosting our first evening seminar. Field support was provided by the Monterey Express; thanks to owner Tim Doreck and to Captain Phil Sammet for serving at the helm of our adventures. This project would not be possible without the financial support of an anonymous foundation.

Design by Joanne Kidd, development by Ben Weintraub