As all of you Caribbean fiswatchers know, hamlets are a group of colourful coral reef fish found throughout the Caribbean. Ten species of hamlet have been discovered and each can be easily recognized by its own distinct colour pattern. In some areas, as many as seven varieties can be found on a single reef. However, most hamlet species are only found at specific locations. The blue hamlet, for example, is found only in the Florida region. How these very different looking, yet very closely related species came to be has been a a subject of debate among scientists. Data collected by divers and snorkelers as part of the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project were recently used in a large analysis to better understand the patterns of evolution in these and other marine fishes. Dr. Ben Holt from University of East Anglia (UK) and his colleagues Simon Fraser University in Canada recently published their findings in the scientific journal Global Ecology and Biogeography.
It had previously been believed that these different species of hamlets evolved because of geographical separation. For example, it was thought that falling sea levels in the past could have divided the original species. Then, when levels increased, the differently evolved species were thrown back together. The new study found little evidence for this theory and instead suggests that hamlet color varieties could have evolved regardless of any physical separation. Using thousands of underwater surveys made by REEF volunteers, the researchers analysed distributions of the ten different hamlet species. They found that even widespread hamlet species are not found everywhere, and identified high density hotspots for each species. Because different species hotspots overlap and many species have more than one hotspot, the results do not support the theory that hamlets originated independently when they were geographically separated in the past. The research also showed how ecological factors, such as competition for food or habitat, may influence how different hamlet species co-exist.
"Our findings suggest that ecology may better explain the evolution of hamlets than geographical separation," said lead author Dr Ben Holt of UEA's School of Biological Sciences. "Many scientists believe hamlets are beginning to evolve into a new species and this latest discovery will shed light on this process." The full citation of the paper is Holt, B., I Cote, and B Emerson (2010). Signatures of speciation? Distribution and diversity of Hypoplectrus (Teleostei: Serranidae) colour morphotypes. Global Ecology and Biogeography (published online 23 April 2010).
To see this and other scientific papers that have been published using REEF data, check out the Publications page on the REEF.org website here.
After years of work, the Tropical Pacific edition of Reef Creature Identification by Paul Humann and Ned DeLoach is being released later this fall. A limited number of pre-release, signed and numbered copies will be available beginning Monday September 13. The authors have donated to REEF the first five pre-release copies of this spectacular book. REEF will be auctioning copies #1-#5 through eBay. The copies will be numbered, signed, and personalized to the winner's specifications. All proceeds from this auction will go directly to REEF, and will support our critical marine conservation programs. The auction goes live Sunday September 12 at 9pm EST. Once live, you can find the auction pages for all five copies here. The auction will last 10 days.
The long-awaited, 500-page reference detailing 1,600 animals with 2,000 photographs and descriptive text is not only the most comprehensive visual field guide to marine invertebrate life inhabiting the waters from Thailand to Tahiti, but also a pictorial tour de force skillfully bridging science and the aesthetic. For the past five years the two authors/photographers have delved deep into uncharted waters, not only visually documenting numerous species for the first time, but also incorporating the most recent taxonomic research of more than 40 scientific specialists. The text focuses on mobile species, highlighting crustaceans, mollusks, worms and echinoderms, however the pages include an overview of attached marine animals, and also explore facets of marine invertebrate behavior. The guide provides a boon of information for diving photographers and underwater naturalists, known as critter hunters, who enjoy one of the most challenging games in the sea – searching for charismatic mini-fauna of the reef. And for the armchair adventurers, the brilliant gallery of images brings an unseen, unimagined world to the surface like never before.
Visit the book webpage to find out more about Reef Creature Identification - Tropical Pacific and to see sample spreads from the book.
REEF members are at the heart of our grassroots marine conservation programs. Over 43,000 divers, snorkelers, students, and armchair naturalists stand behind our mission.
This month we highlight Doug Harder (REEF member since 1996). Doug lives in Monument, Colorado, and has conducted 759 REEF surveys. Doug is a member of the Advanced Assessment Team in both the Tropical Western Atlantic and Hawaii. Here's what Doug had to say about REEF:
What inspires you to do REEF Surveys?
For me, jumping in the ocean with a slate is the ultimate, there is just nothing better. The ocean is always a mystery as to what I will find. Even if I have been on a site before, I have learned that the sea and its habitants are always changing and moving. I have become quite aware of the overall reef ecosystem and have learned about fish, such as where on the reef they live, how they behave, and what they eat. Are they vegetarians or are they carnivores, are they the hunters or the hunted, dine in or dine out?
What is your favorite fish find?
When I survey in the Caribbean I am always be on the lookout for the sailfin blenny, which is only 1 ½” long. It will flap its pectoral fins and wave its dorsal fin at me. How could you miss that fish? Then there is the 14’ manta ray off the island of Molokini, Hawaii, how do you compare?
In addition to doing surveys, what else do you appreciate about REEF?
Of course giving back to Mother Earth is a part of the good thing that REEF is. Looking after our mostly unknown and least observed animals on earth and trying to help scientist understand what is going on with the fish. That to me is what REEF really is and how it is helping. The fact that I get to be a part of it makes me feel lucky.
Any tips for surveyors out there?
Do you want to see more fish, the unusual fish, the hard to find fish? Well here is a tip for the REEFers -- be the first off the boat and the last one up. Unless of course I am on the boat, then second will work!
REEF Field Surveys are a great introduction to fish identification for novice fishwatchers, and are a fun way for experienced surveyors to build their life list while interacting with fellow fishwatchers. REEF staff, board members, and other REEF instructors lead these trips, and each features daily classroom seminars and a full diving schedule. Don't miss out, spaces are filling up for our 2012 trips. The schedule and more details are posted online at www.REEF.org/trips. We have an exciting lineup of destinations planned and we hope you will join us. 2012 destinations and dates:
To inquire about a trip and to reserve your spot, contact the REEF Travel Consultant at Caradonna, 1-877-295-7333 (REEF), or via e-mail REEF@caradonna.com. *Hornby Island trip is being booked directly with the resort; contact owner/operator Amanda at email@example.com, or 250-335-2807.
A big fish thanks to the 222 volunteers who conducted REEF surveys in the last three months (Dec '11-Feb '12). A total of 1,746 surveys were conducted and submitted during this time!
REEF members who have conducted the most surveys in the last three months:
TWA – Dee Scarr (78), Franklin Neal (45), Michael Phelan (43)
NE – Joseph Mangiafico (13), Michael Murphy (5), Eric Heupel (5)
PAC – Randall Tyle (38), Phil Green (32), Georgia Arrow (15)
TEP – Pam Wade (20)
HAW – Judith Tarpley (41), MJ Farr (35), Patricia Richardson (30)
To date, 157,298 surveys have been conducted by REEF volunteers.
Visit www.REEF.org/db/stats to see the Top 10 surveyors with the most surveys conducted to date, the most species-rich locations, and most frequently sighted fish species.
We are saddened to share news about the passing of one of our most active REEF members, Mike Phelan, earlier this month in Jupiter, FL. Mike's enthusiasm for fishcounting was infectious and he often taught fish ID. He had participated in many REEF projects and was a member of our Advanced Assessment Team. REEF co-founder, Paul Humann, remembers Mike’s unsurpassed passion for marine life and conservation. "REEF's database is much more meaningful thanks to Mike's contribution of nearly 1,500 fish surveys over the last 14 years. Working with State of Florida officials he did a great deal of volunteer research on the Goliath Groupers and wrote several scientific reports. His information was used as part of the government decision-making process to continue the Goliath's protection as an endangered species. On one of his last dives he counted 114 Goliath Groupers in a single aggregation, the largest ever recorded. As a personal friend, I along with everyone that knew Mike will miss him greatly - as will the Goliath Groupers who have lost one of their staunchest advocates."
REEF Director of Special Projects and original Executive Director, Lad Akins, regarded Mike as a top-notch team member and an all around great person. "Mike Phelan was a friend of REEF and a friend of mine. If I had to pick a team for anything, Mike would be one of the first I’d pick. He was a joy to be around – always quick in wit and a true professional in his approach to almost any situation. I first met Mike on a REEF fish survey trip in 1998. He quickly became a mainstay of REEF fish survey activities and achieved Golden Hamlet status with over 1,000 fish survey dives. His dedication to protecting marine resources, especially Goliath Grouper, was widely known and his efforts were far reaching in helping to better understand this keystone species. Mike was certainly a member of the REEF family and we’ll miss him much."
Mike will be sorely missed in the REEF community. Our thoughts and sympathies go out to his wife and their children. If you would like to read more about Mike's efforts with REEF, you can read the monthly member spotlight that featured him in June 2011. Mike's obituary and remembrance page is posted here.
If you haven't yet booked your space on one of our 2013 REEF Field Surveys, don't delay. They are filling up fast and several are now sold out. Trips with space remaining are: Southern Bahamas Lionfish Trip with Lad Akins and Peter Hughes (May 18-25), Little Cayman with Paul Humann (July 13-20), Curacao Lionfish Trip with Lad Akins and Peter Hughes (Aug 31-Sept 7), Barkley Sound British Columbia with Janna Nichols (Sept 28-Oct 1), Grenada with Dr. Christy Semmens (Oct 5-12), and Socorro Islands with Marty Snyderman and Andy Dehart (Dec 3-12). Visit www.REEF.org/trips for information and details on all of these great trips. To book your space or ask questions, get in touch with our travel agent at Caradonna - 1-877-295-REEF (7333) or REEF@caradonna.com.
Have you joined a Fishinar yet? These popular online REEF webinar training sessions provide fishie fun in the comfort of your own home. Fishinars are free, and open to all REEF members. You need to register for each session you want to attend. No special software is required, just a web browser. Upcoming sessions include:
Lesser Known Fish of Cozumel - October 17
Feel the Beat! The Top 12 Drums & Croakers of the Caribbean - October 29
You do WHAT for a living? Illustrating Fishes - with special guest Val Kells, Scientific Illustrator - November 13
New Fishinars are always being added. Check out the Webinar Training page (www.REEF.org/fishinars) for the most up-to-date listing and to register for each session.
Every month, scientists, government agencies, and other groups request raw data from REEF’s Fish Survey Project database. Here is a sampling of who has asked for REEF data recently and what they are using it for:
- Researchers from Western Washington University, Simon Frasier University, and the SeaDoc Society are all using REEF data to evaluate the status of echinoderms in the Pacific Northwest and how the rapid spread of seastar wasting disease will affect populations.
- Scientists from Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife are including REEF data in an evaluation of the status of Northern Abalone in Washington State.
- A researcher from RSMAS at University of Miami is using REEF data from throughout the Caribbean basin to evaluate populations of predators.
We've got lots of exciting, fun, and educational REEF Fishinars in store for you this fall - featuring your favorite instructors and special guests. Check out the full schedule at www.REEF.org/fishinars. REEF Fishinars are a free benefit of REEF membership, and did you know that REEF members can also access and view any of our archived Fishinars from previous years? Fishinars coming up include:
Explore our Fishinar webpage, register for the sessions you like, and we'll see you online! No special software or is required - just a computer with speakers and an internet connection. And did we mention they are FREE to REEF members!