Scientific Papers and Reports

This is an annotated list of the published papers and reports that have included REEF data. The list is in chronological order. Papers that are available for viewing in .pdf format are noted.

Also see the Projects page for links to additional reports.

Wolfe, JR and CV Pattengill-Semmens. 2013. Fish Population Fluctuation Estimates Based on Fifteen Years of REEF Volunteer Diver Data For the Monterey Peninsula, California.

CalCOFI Reports. 54 (2013): 127-140

A database of fish surveys conducted by volunteer recreational divers trained by REEF was used to examine fish populations in Monterey Peninsula, California, between 1997 and 2011. Over 3,000 surveys were conducted as part of this ongoing citizen science effort. The analysis was conducted using a numerical conversion method to calculate population estimates from REEF log-scale data (this method was described in a companion paper published in the same CalCOFI Reports issue). Variations in relative density over time are reported for 18 fish species, including several fisheries-targeted species. Two recruitment pulses of young-of-the-year rockfish (Sebastes spp.) were observed over the study period, with subsequent increases in older rockfish. Several predator species increased and subsequently declined, peaking two years after prey populations. Strong concordance was found between REEF data and those collected by Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO), a consortium of academic institutions. Results show that data collected by REEF has great potential to augment and strengthen professional research data and serve as a valuable baseline to evaluate marine reserves.

Ward-Paige CA, B Davis, and B Worm. 2013. Global Population Trends and Human Use Patterns of Manta and Mobula Rays.

PLoS ONE. 8(9): e74835. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074835

Despite being the world’s largest rays and providing significant revenue through dive tourism, little is known about the population status, exploitation, and trade volume of the Mobulidae (mobulids; Manta and Mobula spp.). There is anecdotal evidence, however, that mobulid populations are declining, largely due to the recent emergence of a widespread trade for their gill rakers. Researchers from Dalhousie University and used expert divers’ observations from two citizen science programs, REEF's Volunteer Fish Survey Project and, to describe global manta and devil ray abundance trends and human use patterns. The study highlights the relative rarity of aggregation sites on a global scale and reveals that many populations appear to be declining. The authors warn that newly emerging fisheries for the rays gill-­‐rakers likely exceed their ability to recover. The study also demonstrates the deficiency of official catch reports, as only four countries have ever reported landing manta or devil rays– Indonesia, Liberia, Spain and Ecuador. However, numerous diver reports compiled in the paper illustrate that many other countries are regularly landing and selling these rays without reporting.

Auster PJ, L Kracker, V Price, E Heupel, G McFall, and D Grenda. 2013. Behavior Webs of Piscivores at Subtropical Live-Bottom Reefs.

Bulletin of Marine Science. 89(1):377–396

The authors describe the behavioral interactions of piscivorous mid-water and demersal fishes at subtropical live-bottom reefs off the coast of Georgia and off the west coast of Florida in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. The observations are used to construct a topological behavior web of the interactions of mid-water and demersal piscivores, their prey, and those associated species that modify predator-prey interactions. Results show that inter-specific behavioral interactions are common attributes of piscivores in these reef fish communities. The authors propose a framework for assessing the demographic consequences of such interactions. Data for this study were collected using a modified Roving Diver Technique, the method employed by REEF surveyors. One of the co-authors, Dave Grenda, is a member of REEF's Advanced Assessment Team.

Francisco-Ramos V, Arias-González JE . 2013. Additive Partitioning of Coral Reef Fish Diversity Across Hierarchical Spatial Scales Throughout the Caribbean.

PLoS ONE. 8(10): e78761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078761

There is an increasing need to examine regional patterns of diversity in coral-reef systems because their biodiversity is declining globally. The authors used REEF data from 80 sites from 6 eco-regions throughout the Caribbean to evaluate patterns of biodiversity. Specifically, they used "additive partitioning", which quantifies the contribution of different types of diversity (alpha and beta; comparing diversity between sites within a region and between regions) to total diversity across different spatial scales. The primary objective was to identify patterns of reef-fish diversity across multiple spatial scales under different scenarios, examining factors such as fisheries and demographic connectivity. Total diversity at the Caribbean scale was attributed to β-diversity (nearly 62% of the species), with the highest β-diversity at the site scale. α⎯⎯-diversity was higher than expected by chance in all scenarios and at all studied scales.

This suggests that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha, except for the Southern ecoregion where there was a greater difference in species among sites. β-components were lower than expected in all ecoregions, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. The scenario involving the effects of fisheries showed a shift in dominance for β-diversity from regions to subregions, with no major changes to the diversity patterns. In contrast, demographic connectivity partially explained the diversity pattern. β-components were low within connectivity regions and higher than expected by chance when comparing between them. The author's results highlight the importance of ecoregions as a spatial scale to conserve local and regional coral reef-fish diversity.

Haggarty, D. 2013. Rockfish Conservation Areas in BC: Our current state of knowledge.

Report by the David Suzuki Foundation. 84 pp

In response to conservation concerns for inshore rockfish, Fisheries and Oceans Canada implemented a system of 164 rockfish conservation areas (RCAs) in British Columbia as part of the Rockfish Conservation Strategy. RCAs were established between 2004 and 2007. RCAs are not marine protected areas (MPAs) because they were not designated though any MPA legislative tool such as Canada’s Ocean Act, but rather through a fishery closure using the Fisheries Act. They can, however, be considered harvest refugia. Evaluations of the performance of RCAs have recently been undertaken by government agencies, academics, non- governmental organizations (NGOs) and First Nations. This report describes the most recent scientific research on RCAs. Research has been done using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), scuba surveys, hook-and-line fishing surveys, genetic analysis and compliance monitoring. Although some empirical research shows some RCAs are demonstrating an effect, most have not shown statistical differences in rockfish density among RCAs and non-RCA sites. One reason for this might be that RCAs are still considered to be “new” or “young” and it is thought that rockfish will take numerous years to respond to protection. REEF survey data for inshore rockfish and greenling species from Whytecliff Park between 1998 and 2013 were included in this report. Whytecliff Park is in West Vancouver, and was made the West Vancouver RCA in 2006.

Ruttenberg BI, PJ Schofield, JL Akins, A Acosta, MW Feeley, J Blondeau, SG Smith, and JS Ault. 2012. Rapid invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) in the Florida Keys, USA: evidence from multiple pre- and post-invasion data sets.

Bulletin of Marine Science. 88(4):1051–1059

Over the past decade, Indo-Pacific lionfishes have invaded and spread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. These species are generalist predators of fishes and invertebrates with the potential to disrupt the ecology of the invaded range. Lionfishes have been present in low numbers along the east coast of Florida since the 1980s, but were not reported in the Florida Keys until 2009. This paper uses data from the 20,000+ REEF surveys conducted in Florida since the early 1990s, along with other long-term data sources, to document the appearance and rapid spread of lionfishes in the Florida Keys. The results are the first to quantify the invasion of lionfishes in a new area using multiple independent, ongoing monitoring data sets, two of which have explicit estimates of sampling effort. Between 2009 and 2011, lionfish frequency of occurrence, abundance, and biomass increased rapidly, increasing three- to six-fold between 2010 and 2011 alone. In addition, individuals were detected on a variety of reef and non-reef habitats throughout the Florida Keys. Because lionfish occurrence, abundance, and impacts are expected to continue to increase throughout the region, monitoring programs like REEF's Volunteer Survey Project will be essential to document ecosystem changes that may result from this invasion.

Archer SK, SA Heppell, BX Semmens, CV Pattengill-Semmens, PG Bush, CM McCoy, BC Johnson. 2012. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation.

Current Zoology. 58 (1): 73-83

Members of REEF's Grouper Moon Project team, including researchers from Oregon State University, have been conducting annual monitoring of the size and color phase of individual Nassau grouper found at the spawning aggregation on Little Cayman in the Cayman Islands. During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration. However, while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases: “bicolor”, “dark”, and “white belly”. Each year, Grouper Moon Project researchers and volunteers use a video camera with lasers mounted on the camera housing. The divers focus the laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation, capturing several seconds of footage for each fish. We later analyze the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase. This paper summarizes five years of video data. Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning. The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn. Additionally, 82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously assumed in the scientific literature. This is just one aspect of the important marine conservation research being conducted as part of the Grouper Moon Project. To find out more, visit the Grouper Moon Project webpage.

Burge EJ, JD Atack, C Andrews, BM Binder, ZD Hart, AC Wood, E Bohrer, and K Jagannathan. 2012. Underwater Video Monitoring of Groupers and the Associated Hard-Bottom Reef Fish Assemblage of North Carolina.

Bulletin of Marine Science. 8(1): 15-38

The authors of this study observed grouper and and their associated reef fish assemblage using scuba and underwater stationary videography during a 7-mo period. Fifty-seven sites around Cape Fear, NC, were visited with stationary video and diver point counts of groupers were taken at each site. Data collected as part of the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project, as well as several other datasets, were used to compare with the study results. Similar to other comparative studies previously published, the authors found that different survey methodologies have varying success at detecting even common species.

Green SJ, Akins JL, Maljković A, Côté IM. 2012. Invasive Lionfish Drive Atlantic Coral Reef Fish Declines.

PLoS ONE. 7(3): e32596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032596

There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems. Lead author, Stephanie Green, from Simon Fraser University (SFU), along with REEF Director of Special Projects, Lad Akins and other co-authors Aleks Maljković (SFU), and Isabelle Côté (SFU), documented a dramatic 65% decline in 42 species of reef fish eaten by lionfish over a two year period. The study, conducted off New Providence Island in the Bahamas, used data collected during REEF's volunteer lionfish projects to track the explosion of the lionfish population over time, and revealed that lionfish biomass increased from 23% to nearly 40% of the predator biomass on the study sites between 2008 and 2010. This study represents the first documented direct impact of lionfish predation on native reef fishes and highlights the importance of control programs to minimize impacts.

Heppell SA, BX Semmens, SK Archer, CV Pattengill-Semmens, PG Bush, CM McCoy, SS Heppell, BC Johnson. 2012. Documenting recovery of a spawning aggregation through size frequency analysis from underwater laser calipers measurements.

Biological Conservation. 155: 119-127

This paper presents a key technique that scientists from REEF and our Grouper Moon collaborators have used to monitor fish on the Little Cayman spawning aggregation that does not require the capture and handling of fish. We show that length-distribution data can be collected by divers using a video-based system with parallel lasers calibrated to a specific distance apart, and subsequently use those data to monitor changes in the size distribution over time.

Design by Joanne Kidd, development by Ben Weintraub