Victor, B and FH Krasovec

This paper describes cleaning behavior that had previously not been documented in a particular species. The findings are the result of the keen eyes of two active REEF surveyors – Carol Cox and Frank Krasovec. Carol frequently surveys in the northern Gulf of Mexico and Frank surveys in his home state of North Carolina. Both photographed Yellowprow Goby, Elacatinus xanthiprora, cleaning other fishes, which is not typical for the species. Scientist and frequent REEF advisor, Dr. Ben Victor, noticed the photos, and started working with Carol and Frank to more fully document and publish the findings. Frank co-authored the paper with Ben.

There are several species in the western Atlantic genus Elacatinus, and they are broadly separated in to two groups – cleaners and sponge-dwellers. In most of the region, several species of each group are present, and Yellowprow Goby are sponge gobies. But in the northern temperate limits, along the northeastern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and along the east coast of the USA at North Carolina (beyond the range of coral-reef development), the only Elacatinus present is the Yellowprow Goby. It appears that the lack of other local cleaner species has allowed the evolution of facultative cleaning behavior in a species from a group characterized by the absence of that behavior.

This is a great example of the power of citizen scientists, and highlights their role in continuing the tradition of field naturalist. 

The Journal of Ocean Science Foundation
31, 1–7
2018
Gruss, A, et al

This paper is an inventory of fish and invertebrate monitoring programs in the US Gulf of Mexico, including the REEF Volunteer Fish Survey Project, which has been active in the region since 1994. The authors conducted a gap analysis of the programs, and provided recommendations for improving current monitoring programs and designing new programs, and guidance for more comprehensive use and sharing of monitoring data. They also compiled a large monitoring database encompassing much of the monitoring data collected in the region using random sampling schemes and employed this database to fit statistical models to then map the spatial distributions of 61 fish and invertebrate functional groups, species and life stages. The study included 73 monitoring programs in the region. This study was funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) RESTORE Act Science Program.

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
28 June 2018
2018
Egerton, JP, AF Johnson, L Le Vay, CM McCoy, BX Semmens, SA Heppell, and JR Turner

The Grouper Moon Project is always looking for new and/or better ways of accurately estimating the number of spawning Nassau Grouper at the aggregation sites being monitored. In 2014, we tested the use of a split-beam echosounder as a tool for surveying the abundance and size of fish at the aggregation site; the results of the study are detailed in this peer-reviewed paper. We found that the echosounder performs fairly well at providing an index of abundance, although the absolute accuracy of the method was not sufficient to replace other survey methods (e.g. mark and recapture monitoring). After calibrating the method with diver-based fish length surveys, the tool was able to accurately capture estimates of aggregating fish sizes. Surveys on all 3 islands (Little Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Grand Cayman) showed that the average size of Nassau Grouper on Little Cayman was significantly larger than on both Brac and Grand. On the other hand, the sizes of Nassau Grouper on Brac and Grand were not significantly different. Based on this study, the echosounder is a potentially useful tool for surveying aggregations, but is likely best use to complement more intensive diver-based survey methods. 

Coral Reefs
36 (2): 589-600
2017
Green, SJ, E Underwood, and JL Akins

Lionfish derbies and tournaments were first implemented in 2009 with the intent of increasing public awareness about the lionfish invasion in the western Atlantic, gathering specimens for research, and training volunteers to safely and effectively collect the venomous species. Since then, REEF has coordinated a series of derbies each year and assisted other organizations and groups in organizing and running their own derbies, resulting in the removal of tens of thousands of invasive lionfish.

The increasing number of derbies held across the region presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the extent to which volunteer removal activities during such derbies can be an effective means of population suppression. Using REEF lionfish derbies as a test case, REEF staff, affiliated scientists, and volunteers worked together to address six key questions: 1) What is the total area over which removal can be affected during a derby event? 2) Is capture during derbies size-selective? 3) To what extent are local invader populations suppressed by derby activities? 4) At what rate do lionfish re-colonize following derby events? 5) Is removal sufficient to reduce and sustain densities below those predicted to cause predation-mediated declines in native species? and 6) Is the magnitude of invader removal related to catch per unit effort (CPUE)? To answer these questions, the authors collected data on landings and participant effort over three years of lionfish derbies in both Key Largo, Florida and Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas.

The study documented that from 2012-2014, single day derbies reduced lionfish densities by 52% across an area of 192 km2 on average each year. Differences in recolonization and productivity between regions meant that annual events were sufficient to suppress the invasion below levels predicted to cause declines in native species in one region, but not the other. Population reduction was not related to CPUE, confirming the importance of in situ monitoring to gauge control effectiveness. Future work to assess rates of recolonization in relation to derby frequency will help guide management and control decisions.

Conservation Letters
DOI: 10.1111/conl.12426
2017
Tolimieri, N, EE Holmes, GD Williams, R Pacunski, and D Lowry

Estimating a population’s growth rate and year-to-year variance is a key component of population viability analysis (PVA). However, standard PVA methods require time series of counts obtained using consistent survey methods over many years. The authors of this study used REEF data along with two other fisheries datasets to evaluate the long-term trends of rockfish in Puget Sound, Washington State. The time-series analysis was performed with a multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) model. The authors show that using a MARSS modeling approach can provide a rigorous statistical framework for solving some of the challenges associated with using multiple, sometimes inconsistent datasets, and can reduce the proportion of fisheries assessment cases that are assigned a designation of “data deficient.”

The analysis of the paper was part of the 5-year review of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Puget Sound populations of three rockfish species (Bocaccio, Canary Rockfish, and Yelloweye Rockfish), and was conducted by scientists at the National Marine Fisheries Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The three sources of data included in the study were: (1) recreational catch data, (2) scuba surveys conducted by REEF surveyors, and (3) a fishery-independent trawl survey. Because there were too few observations of the three species of rockfish in the data sources to analyze these species directly, the MARSS analysis estimated the abundance of all rockfish. Because Bocaccio, Canary, and Yelloweye are deep water species, they are not often seen by REEF surveyors. The other two data sets showed that these rockfishes declined as a proportion of recreational catch between the 1970s and 2010s. The REEF data suggest that other species like Copper and Quillback rockfish have experienced population growth in shallower depths.

Ecology and Evolution
7: 2846–2860. https://doi.org/10.1002/ ece3.2901
2017
Gruss, A., JT Thorson, EA Babcock, and JH Tarnecki

In this paper, authors use data regarding where REEF divers did or did not encounter three species of fisheries importance: red snapper, red grouper, and gag grouper. They then combined these data with 36 other data sets, each sampling different areas of the Gulf of Mexico, and created distribution maps for use in ecosystem models of the Gulf of Mexico. These distribution maps picked up fish hotspots that are not identifiable by any individual data set, highlighting the complementary nature of the REEF data.

ICES Journal of Marine Science
doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsx120
2017
Clauson-Kaas, S, K Richardson, C Rahbek, and BG Holt

The study used REEF's Volunteer Fish Survey Project database to produce a new map of marine fish biodiversity across the Caribbean and tropical western Atlantic. The work, performed by scientists from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution & Climate in Denmark and the Marine Biological Association, studied REEF’s extensive data base collected by our volunteer surveyors to produce the map and find that fish biodiversity is strongly linked to sea temperatures. However, results also show that while fish biodiversity is higher in warmer waters, the very hottest sites in fact have fewer species than sites with intermediate temperatures, something not shown before in previous studies. These results will be of concern given the rising water temperatures in the region. For more details, see this REEF enews article.

Journal of Biogeography
2017(00): 1–11
2017
Roberts M, N Hanley, S Williams, and W Cresswell

REEF fish survey data collected from Bonaire in 2015 were used to help evaluate the impact of terrestrial degradation on nearby coral reefs, specifically investigating the link between vegetation ground cover and tree biomass index to coral cover, fish communities and visibility. The authors found a positive relationship between ground cover and coral cover below 10 m depth, and a negative relationship between tree biomass index and coral cover below 10 m. Greater ground cover is associated to sediment anchored through root systems, and higher surface complexity, slowing water flow, which would otherwise transport sediment. The negative relationship between tree biomass index and coral cover is unexpected, and may be a result of the deep roots associated with dry-forest trees, due to limited availability of water, which therefore do not anchor surface sediment, or contribute to surface complexity. The analysis provides evidence that coral reef managers could improve reef health through engaging in terrestrial ecosystem protection, for example by taking steps to reduce grazing pressures, or in restoring degraded forest ecosystems.

Ocean & Coastal Management
149 (5): 52-68
2017
Starck, WA, Estapé CJ & Morgan Estapé, A
From 1958-67, Walter A. Starck II conducted marine biological studies in the area of Alligator Reef, off of Islamorada in the Florida Keys, these included extensive fish collecting. In 1968, he published A list of fishes of Alligator Reef.

Over the half-century since the original Alligator Reef survey, there have been great advances in the taxonomy of Greater Caribbean reef fishes, with numerous changes in scientific names and classification. As part of the update these changes are addressed so as to bring the list to current status.

In 2013 the junior authors (REEF Advanced Assessment Team members) undertook a four-year census of the fishes of the area with a goal to photo-document as many of their sightings as possible. This effort has subsequently entailed 1039 combined dives devoted to fish counts, photographic documentation, or both. During these surveys, they have photographed 278 of the species reported by Starck (1968) plus 35 additional and/or newly described or reclassified species not recorded in the earlier study.

An update of the checklist of fishes of Alligator Reef and environs some fifty years later provides an unparalleled opportunity to evaluate the species richness for a limited reef area, as well as a unique opportunity to explore changes in diversity over a half-century time scale. In the updated study the authors added 107 species and subtracted 5 from the original total of 516 species: thus the checklist now totals 618 species, of 122 families, the most recorded for any similarly sized area in the New World. The additional species records are made up from a number of subsequent collections as well as from a comprehensive effort by the junior authors.

Among the other databases of relevance to the study area used for comparison, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Shorefishes of the Greater Caribbean by D.R. Robertson & J. Van Tassell and that of the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF).

REEF maintains an online database of worldwide visual fish-count surveys conducted by volunteer researchers and fish-count enthusiasts. While such surveys are biased towards easily observed species, they are indicative for a large portion of the reef fish fauna and comprise a valuable source of comparative information (Schmitt & Sullivan 1996, Pattengill-Semmens & Semmens 2003, Holt et al. 2013). The local REEF data includes that of the Estapés, who have conducted 185 roving-diver REEF surveys on Alligator Reef. An additional 1807 surveys at 94 sites in the study area have also been conducted by other REEF volunteers (as of July, 3, 2016).

Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation
27
2017
Bernard, AM, KA Feldheim, R Nemeth, E Kadison, J Blondeau, BX Semmens, MS Shivji

Like many places throughout the Caribbean, Nassau Grouper spawning aggregations in the US Virgin Islands were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau Grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling aggregation. The authors of this study addressed two objectives: 1) which factors (local vs. external recruitment) are important in shaping recovery of the USVI spawning aggregations, and 2) the impact of severe past overfishing on the genetic structure of the Gremmanik Bank aggregation. For this second objective, REEF Grouper Moon Project scientists provided genetic samples from individual Nassau Grouper taken from the Little Cayman spawning aggregation, a much larger and less impacted aggregation.

No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman spawning aggregations. Additionally, the USVI spawning population showed signs of a genetic bottleneck, typical of greatly reduced populations. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI spawning aggregation recovery. These findings also provide a baseline for future genetic monitoring of the spawning aggregations.

Coral Reefs
35:273–284
2016

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